Table of contents:
- Indications for Hypertension Screening
- Hypertension Screening Alert
- Before Hypertension Screening
- Hypertension Screening Procedure
- After Hypertension Screening
- Complications of Hypertension Screening
Hypertension screening is an examination to detect high blood pressure or hypertension. This examination is useful for reducing the risk of serious complications due to hypertension, such as heart attacks and strokes
Hypertension is a common he alth condition in Indonesia. According to research, 34.1% of Indonesians suffer from hypertension.
A person is said to have hypertension if his systolic pressure is above 130 mmHg and his diastolic pressure is above 80 mmHg continuously.
Currently, blood pressure checkers or sphygmomanometers have been designed to be more modern and automatic. Therefore, apart from being able to be done by doctors or other medical personnel at the hospital, hypertension screening can also be done independently at home.
Indications for Hypertension Screening
Basically, hypertension screening is recommended to be done routinely, especially for people with certain conditions. The following is an explanation of the recommended hypertension screening based on a person's age and condition:
- Over 18 years old with normal blood pressure: every 2–5 years
- Over 40 years old with normal blood pressure: once a year
- Has risk factors for hypertension, such as obesity: once a year
- Pregnant: every time I check with my gynecologist
- Suffering from hypertension or chronic diseases, such as heart disease: independently every day and every visit to the doctor
In addition to monitoring high and low blood pressure, screening for hypertension in patients with hypertension or certain chronic diseases can also assist doctors in prescribing medicines and monitoring the effectiveness of the treatment that has been given.
Hypertension Screening Alert
Hypertension screening is a fast, safe, and painless procedure. During the examination, the cuff on the sphygmomanometer will expand so that it can squeeze and compress the arm. This can make some people feel uncomfortable for a few seconds, but is not dangerous.
Hypertension screening should not be performed on an arm that has an abnormal channel (fistula), is swollen due to a blockage of a lymph node (lymphedema), or is being infused. In these conditions, hypertension screening can be done on the other arm or lower limb.
Before undergoing the examination, the patient also needs to tell the doctor if he is taking certain drugs. This is because some medicines can affect the patient's blood pressure so that the screening results can be inaccurate.
Before Hypertension Screening
There is no special preparation before undergoing hypertension screening. However, patients can prepare questions that they want to ask the doctor to get complete information.
In addition, patients also need to do the following:
- Do not exercise, consume caffeinated beverages, or smoke for 30 minutes before hypertension screening
- Wear short sleeves or clothes that fold up easily, so that the pressure cuff can be more easily attached to the arm
- Remain calm and avoid stressful thoughts for at least 5 minutes before the examination
For people who screen for hypertension independently, screening should be done at the same time, for example every morning or evening. In addition, it is recommended to record every result of hypertension screening, to be used as a reference when conducting an examination to the doctor.
Hypertension Screening Procedure
Hypertension screening only takes about 1 minute. Generally, this procedure is performed in a sitting position.
Before screening, the doctor will ask the patient to extend his arm and align it with the patient's heart position. After that, the doctor will carry out the following processes:
- Wrap the sphygmomanometer cuff around the patient's forearm, just above the elbow
- Place the stethoscope over the patient's arm to listen for pulse and blood flow, if measuring with a manual tool
- Inflate the cuff slowly with a small pump in the hand so that the patient's blood flow will stop for a moment
- Releasing the pump to slowly shrink the cuff so that blood flow can return smoothly
- Listen to blood flow and pulse, and measure the patient's blood pressure as the cuff shrinks
If the hypertension screening is done with an automatic device, the cuff will inflate by itself. Doctors also don't need a stethoscope to measure pulse and blood flow. This is because the blood pressure has been measured by the machine automatically.
Hypertension screening can be done independently at home with automatic tools. However, first consult with your doctor regarding the type of device, how to use it, reading it, and recording it, as well as the right time to screen for hypertension.
After Hypertension Screening
After the hypertension screening is done, the doctor will inform the patient of the results of the examination. The results of this examination include systolic pressure and diastolic pressure.
Systolic pressure shows blood pressure after the heart beats, while diastolic pressure shows blood pressure when the heart is relaxed after beating.
The following are blood pressure categories based on the measurement results:
- Normal, ie when the systolic pressure is less than 120 mmHg and the diastolic pressure is less than 80 mmHg
- Prehypertension, which is when the systolic pressure is 120–129 mmHg and the diastolic pressure is less than 80 mmHg
- Hypertension grade 1, which is when the systolic pressure is between 130–139 mmHg and the diastolic pressure is between 80–89 mmHg
- Hypertension grade 2, which is when the systolic pressure is 140 mmHg or more and the diastolic pressure is 90 mmHg or more
- Hypotension, which is when the systolic pressure is less than 90 mmHg, and the diastolic pressure is less than 60 mmHg
If the results show that the patient's blood pressure is too high, hypertension screening needs to be done 3 times within at least 1 week since the last screening. In addition, doctors will advise patients to change their lifestyle to be he althier, such as:
- Eat he althy balanced nutritious food and increase the intake of vegetables, nuts, and fruits
- Limiting the consumption of sugar, s alt, and fat
- Avoiding consumption of alcoholic beverages
- Losing weight or maintaining ideal body weight
- No smoking
- Exercise regularly
- Get enough rest
If the results of the screening show that blood pressure remains high, the doctor will give medication to control blood pressure. If there are other symptoms, the doctor will refer the patient to the hospital for further examination.
Complications of Hypertension Screening
In general, hypertension screening does not cause significant complications. However, some people may experience discomfort in the arm being examined. However, this condition only lasted for a moment.
In people who take antiplatelet drugs, hypertension screening can cause complications in the form of rashes and red spots, due to rupture of capillaries in the arms.