7 Allergy Medication to Treat Allergy Symptoms

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7 Allergy Medication to Treat Allergy Symptoms
7 Allergy Medication to Treat Allergy Symptoms

Allergy medication is needed to treat various allergy symptoms. Allergy medications take various forms, from pills, inhalers, nasal sprays, eye drops, skin creams, syrups, to injections

Allergies are incurable conditions. Allergy medications available are intended to relieve or control allergy symptoms, such as a runny nose, sneezing, puffy eyes, or itchy skin and rash.

7 Allergy Medications to Treat Allergy Symptoms - Alodokter
7 Allergy Medications to Treat Allergy Symptoms - Alodokter

Allergy Drugs

Several types of allergy medications that can be obtained with or without a doctor's prescription include:

1. Antihistamines

Antihistamines are the main drugs to treat allergies. This drug works by blocking histamine, a chemical that causes an allergic reaction. This substance is released by the immune system when exposed to an allergy trigger (allergen).

Antihistamines can be used when allergy symptoms appear or to prevent an allergic reaction from occurring. This allergy medication is available in the form of tablets, capsules, creams, syrups, eye drops, or nasal sprays.

The use of antihistamines also depends on the location of the symptoms, for example:

  • Pills for itchy and swollen skin in the mouth, eyes, or other parts of the body
  • Nasal spray to relieve itchy, runny or stuffy nose
  • Eye drops to relieve itchy, red, and swollen eyes

As an allergy medication, antihistamines have side effects, such as drowsiness, fatigue, dry mouth, blurred vision, difficulty urinating, and headaches.

2. Decongestants

Decongestants can be used as a short-term allergy treatment, aka they should not be used for more than a week. If more than that time, this allergy medicine can actually make allergy symptoms worse.

To treat allergies, decongestants are available in various forms, namely:

  • Nose spray, to prevent and relieve nasal congestion, sneezing, and runny nose
  • Inhalers, to relieve asthma
  • Eye drops, to relieve itchy, red or watery eyes
  • Pills or syrups taken by mouth, to treat severe symptoms caused by any type of allergic reaction
  • Skin cream, to relieve allergic skin reactions such as itching, redness, or scaling

Decongestants can also cause some side effects, such as headache, feeling unwell, drowsiness, dry mouth, irritability, and irritation of the nose, mouth, throat, or skin.

Not only that, this allergy medicine is also not recommended for use by people with high blood pressure, cardiovascular disease, glaucoma, or hyperthyroidism.

3. Corticosteroids

Corticosteroids can help reduce inflammation. This allergy medication is available in the form of nasal sprays, eye drops, creams, inhalers, or tablets, depending on the location of the allergy symptoms.

In order for corticosteroids to work optimally, this allergy medicine must be used every day, even if allergy symptoms do not appear. Just like other allergy medications, corticosteroids also have side effects, namely weight gain, fluid buildup in the body, and increased blood pressure.

4. Mast cell stabilizer

Mass cell stabilizers are used to treat mild to moderate inflammation. This allergy medication works by preventing the release of histamine from mast cells, which are cells that produce and store histamine.

Mass cell stabilizers are usually only used if antihistamines do not relieve allergy symptoms well. This allergy medication is available in the form of eye drops and nasal spray.

Irritation of the throat, cough, skin rash, blurred vision, or sore eyes, are some of the side effects of this allergy medicine.

5. Leukotriene inhibitor

Leukotriene inhibitors work by blocking the effects of leukotrienes, which are chemicals produced in the body in response to an allergic reaction. This allergy medicine must be used according to the doctor's prescription.

Leukotriene inhibitors are available in pill or chewable tablet form and are used to relieve nasal congestion, runny nose, and sneezing.

In some people, leukotriene inhibitors can cause headaches, skin rashes, coughs, nasal congestion, fever, heartburn, or stomach pain.

6. Immunotherapy

Immunotherapy can be an option for people with severe allergies or if allergy symptoms cannot be relieved with the various allergy medication options above. Immunotherapy is done by injecting small doses of allergen or putting allergen tablets under the tongue for years.

This procedure is done to get the body used to the allergen so it doesn't react too badly. Immunotherapy injections can only be given by a doctor, while tablet immunotherapy can usually be taken alone at home.

7. Epinephrine

Some people can experience a severe allergic reaction that can be life-threatening (anaphylactic shock). To anticipate this emergency, available epinephrine, which is a special injection containing the drug adrenaline.

After this allergy medicine is injected in the thigh, it is advisable to seek medical help for further treatment.

Allergy drugs can really relieve allergic reactions well. However, the best way to control allergic reactions or symptoms is to avoid the triggers.

If you have an allergy to a certain substance, don't hesitate to consult a doctor. Doctors can recommend appropriate prevention and treatment steps, according to your condition.