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Drugs for low blood pressure are generally needed when dietary and lifestyle changes are not enough to treat the condition. Although it occurs quite often and is usually asymptomatic, low blood pressure can cause dangerous complications in certain conditions
Normally, an adult's blood pressure is 120/80 mmHg. Blood pressure can be said to be low if it is below 90/60 mmHg. This condition which is also called hypotension can be caused by several factors, such as age, heredity, bleeding, consumption of certain drugs, sepsis, dehydration, and pregnancy.
Hypotension generally does not cause symptoms. However, some sufferers may experience symptoms such as nausea, dizziness, weakness, blurred vision, and loss of consciousness.
Uncontrolled hypotension can lead to dangerous complications, such as injuries from falling unconscious, brain disorders, heart disease, stroke, and shock. Therefore, this disease needs to be treated to prevent complications.
Various Kinds of Low Blood Drugs
The initial treatment for low blood pressure is done by changing your diet and adopting a he althy lifestyle. If these initial steps are not effective in increasing blood pressure and treating the symptoms you are experiencing, the doctor will prescribe medication according to the underlying cause.
These drugs are more often given to people with hypotension who are accompanied by symptoms or signs of certain diseases. Well, there are several types of drugs that are generally given by doctors, including:
The drug midodrine is more often used to treat orthostatic hypotension, which is hypotension that is affected by changes in body position. This drug works by constricting blood vessels, so that the pressure in the blood vessels increases and blood pressure will rise.
However, there are some side effects that can arise from using this drug, such as tingling, chills, difficulty urinating, and rashes on the skin.
In addition to midodrine, fludrocortisone can also be used to treat hypotension. This drug works by increasing the volume of blood and s alt levels in the blood vessels, so the heart can pump blood more forcefully and increase blood pressure.
Fludrocortisone can also cause side effects, such as stomach upset, acne, vomiting, and restlessness.
Catecholamines can make the heart beat faster and blood vessels to constrict, so blood pressure will increase. This drug is available in injection form and is only given to patients with hypotension due to severe cases, such as anaphylactic shock or cardiogenic shock.
Examples of catecholamine drugs that are often used are epinephrine, dobutamine, and isoproterenol.
For low blood pressure that occurs due to sepsis, the doctor will give antibiotics to treat severe infections caused by bacteria. The type of antibiotic given will also be adjusted to the type of bacteria that causes infection in the body.
5. Giving intravenous fluids
When the body is dehydrated, the blood volume can decrease. This condition can trigger a decrease in blood pressure. Decreased blood pressure due to lack of blood volume usually occurs in cases of dehydration due to diarrhea or persistent vomiting.
If this condition is not controlled by giving fluids by mouth, the doctor will give intravenous fluids to overcome the dehydration that occurs and speed up the recovery process.
6. Blood transfusion
In conditions of hypotension caused by heavy bleeding, a person will experience a decrease in the volume and flow of blood in the body. This results in a drastic drop in blood pressure.
If the patient loses a lot of blood which causes the red blood cell or hemoglobin level to be below 7–8 g/dL of blood, the doctor will perform a blood transfusion procedure.
The selection of the type and dose of low blood medicine must be adjusted to the patient's condition. That is why, patients must first check with a doctor in order to get the appropriate medicines.
How to Prevent Complications of Low Blood Pressure
In addition to taking low blood pressure medication, there are several steps you need to take to prevent complications of hypotension. Some of these preventive measures include:
- Consumption of balanced nutritious foods and high in s alt, because s alt can increase blood pressure.
- Fulfill fluid needs by drinking water and eating fruits that contain lots of water.
- Avoid consumption of caffeinated beverages and limit alcoholic beverages.
- Do physical activity or exercise regularly.
- Avoid changing body position suddenly, for example from sleeping to standing.
- Wear compression socks to prevent blood from building up in the legs.
You need to remember that hypotension is generally harmless if it only occurs occasionally. However, if the symptoms of hypotension occur continuously so that they interfere with activities, consult your condition with your doctor so that appropriate treatment can be carried out and complications can be prevented.