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Similar to high blood pressure, you also need to be aware of low blood conditions. There are many causes of low blood pressure and can be a sign of a certain medical condition or disease, such as a heart problem or a serious infection
Low blood pressure or hypotension is a condition when a person's blood pressure is below 90/60 mmHg. In fact, normal blood pressure in adults is around 120/80 mmHg.
The effects of low blood pressure may vary depending on the cause. Some sufferers may not experience any symptoms, but some may experience certain symptoms, such as dizziness, fainting, cold sweats, weakness, blurred vision, and nausea.
In severe cases, low blood pressure can even cause serious he alth problems, such as organ damage or even death. Therefore, it's a good idea to know the cause of low blood pressure and how to treat it, so that the condition can be treated appropriately.
Various Causes of Low Blood
Although low blood pressure often occurs in people over the age of 65, it is possible that this condition can also be experienced by young adults and children.
The following are some of the causes of low blood pressure:
1. Orthostatic hypotension
Orthostatic hypotension occurs when there is a decrease in blood pressure due to changes in body position that are too fast, such as from a sitting position to standing or from a sleeping position to standing.
When experiencing this condition, you will feel dizzy, light-headed, or a sensation like you are about to pass out. These symptoms generally only last for a few minutes and subside on their own once blood pressure returns to normal.
2. High intensity exercise
Not only because of disease, low blood pressure can also be caused by physical activity that is too heavy or high-intensity exercise. This effect can occur for a short time after exercise or in the long term in people who exercise regularly.
Some research shows that people who regularly exercise or engage in strenuous physical activity, such as athletes, usually have lower blood pressure. This is because the movement of the body when exercising can increase the supply of oxygen in the body.
3. Disorders of the endocrine glands
Low blood pressure can also be caused by disorders of the endocrine glands or hormone-producing glands, such as hypothyroidism, Addison's disease, and hypoparathyroidism.
4. Heart disorders
Heart problems, such as arrhythmias, heart attacks, and heart failure, often lead to low blood pressure. This is because the heart is no longer strong enough to pump blood around the body, which affects blood pressure and reduces blood flow.
In more severe cases, a rapid and drastic drop in blood pressure can also be caused by dangerous conditions, such as cardiac arrest and cardiogenic shock.
5. Severe allergic reaction (anaphylactic shock)
The next cause of low blood pressure is anaphylactic shock. When exposed to a severe allergic reaction that leads to anaphylactic shock, a person will experience a drastic drop in blood pressure along with other symptoms, such as difficulty breathing, chest palpitations, pale skin, cold sweats, and fainting.
6. Side effects of certain drugs
Consumption of drugs, such as antihypertensive drugs, antidepressants, and diuretics, can have side effects in the form of lowering blood pressure. This side effect of low blood pressure usually disappears after the drugs are stopped.
7. Hypovolemic shock
Hypovolemic shock is a complication that occurs due to heavy bleeding or severe dehydration. This condition can result in a decrease in blood pressure and the amount of oxygen in the body, which in turn causes organ damage.
Sepsis is a severe infectious condition when bacteria or germs have spread throughout the body through the bloodstream. In a more advanced stage, this can lead to septic shock which causes the sufferer to experience a drop in blood pressure and organ damage.
In addition to the various conditions above, pregnancy also causes low blood pressure, but only temporarily. This is because in the first trimester of pregnancy, the body of pregnant women will produce a lot of the hormone progesterone which can lower blood pressure.
To find out if you have low blood pressure, you can check your blood pressure using a sphygmomanometer at a he alth care facility or independently at home using a digital sphygmomanometer.
How to treat low blood pressure
Management of low blood pressure needs to be adjusted to the cause. If it's caused by high-intensity exercise, you can give yourself a break of 5-10 minutes per exercise session and meet your body's fluid needs before exercising.
Meanwhile, low blood pressure due to certain he alth problems, such as heart disease, endocrine gland disease, or infection, this condition requires treatment from a doctor in order to get treatment according to the underlying disease.
You can also do the following things to prevent low blood pressure, namely:
- Avoid changing body position quickly or suddenly.
- Use compression stockings to improve blood flow.
- Fulfill your body's fluid needs by drinking at least 8 glasses of water every day.
- Eat foods that contain s alt or sodium, but not excessively.
- Limit consumption of alcohol and caffeinated drinks, such as coffee and tea.
- Exercise regularly, but adjust the type of exercise to your body condition.
If after applying some of these methods your blood pressure does not improve, especially if low blood pressure appears along with certain complaints, such as shortness of breath, fever, weakness, severe headache, or even fainting, immediately consult a doctor to get proper handling.