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The condition of a breech baby can be experienced by some pregnant women before delivery. If not treated immediately, complications of a breech baby can occur and endanger the condition of the mother and the baby being born.
Normally, babies are in a position ready to be born from 32-36 weeks of gestation. However, for some conditions, the baby is unable to turn so that the head position is at the top of the uterus or opposite the birth canal. This condition is called a breech baby.
The condition of a breech baby often raises its own concerns, because it can cause complications if the handling steps are not taken immediately.
Causes of breech babies and how to deal with them
The cause of breech babies is not known for certain. However, there are several factors that can increase the risk of this condition, namely:
- History of premature delivery
- Pregnancy of twins or more
- Too little or too much amniotic fluid
- The shape of the uterus is not normal
- The growth of abnormal tissue such as myoma
- The placenta covers part or all of the uterine passage (placenta previa)
In addition, some babies with congenital abnormalities are also at risk of experiencing a breech position before delivery.
One way to change the position of a breech baby before birth is by using the external cephalic version (ECV) method. This method is done by putting pressure on the pregnant woman's stomach to direct the baby's head down.
The ECV method is usually carried out at 36 weeks of pregnancy for the first pregnancy, while for the second pregnancy and so on it is usually done at 37 weeks of gestation.
However, women who are carrying twins or have experienced vaginal bleeding during pregnancy are not allowed to undergo this method, so caesarean section is the only way that can be done.
Complications of Breech Babies that Can Happen
If the condition of the breech baby does not change until the time of delivery, there are several risks of complications that can be experienced by pregnant women and the baby to be born, both during normal delivery and caesarean section. Following are some of the complications:
Complications of a breech baby in normal delivery
Normal delivery for a breech baby can still be done for some conditions, such as:
- The part of the baby's body closest to the birth canal is the buttocks
- The size of the baby is not too big and the mother's pelvis is not narrow
- The condition of the baby before delivery is monitored to be stable and normal
- The opening process went smoothly
In addition, experts or a team of doctors who are experienced in dealing with breech babies are also needed and the availability of caesarean section facilities if needed at any time.
Although a normal delivery can still be carried out, there are several complications of a breech baby that can occur, namely:
- The cervix does not open and stretch maximally, so that the baby's shoulder or head will be stuck in the mother's pelvis. This condition will certainly hinder the delivery process.
- The umbilical cord falls into the vagina before the baby is born. This condition can cause the umbilical cord to be compressed or pinched, resulting in decreased blood flow and oxygen intake to the baby.
- Increased risk of baby having a low Apgar score at birth.
- Injury to the neck and spinal cord in babies at birth. This can happen because the baby's head will bend as it passes through the birth canal.
If the condition of the pregnant mother and baby does not allow normal delivery, caesarean section is the only way.
Complications of breech baby in cesarean delivery
C-section for breech babies is generally performed under the following conditions:
- Baby's feet are at the bottom of her buttocks
- Twins with one baby in a breech position
- Baby weighing more than 4 kg or less than 2 kg
- History of cesarean delivery with narrow pelvis
- The position of the placenta is too low
- Mother has a dangerous condition, such as preeclampsia
The procedure for a cesarean section for a breech baby is actually not much different from a cesarean section in general. It's just that the doctor will remove the baby's legs or buttocks first before the head.
Although it is considered safer, giving birth to a breech baby by caesarean section also has various risks of complications, such as infection, bleeding, or injury to internal organs. In addition, disruption of the placenta to the uterine wall or tearing of the uterine wall can also occur during the next pregnancy.
Pregnant women who carry breech babies are also more at risk of premature rupture of membranes. This causes the fetus in the womb to be born prematurely.
For premature breech delivery, most doctors recommend caesarean section because it is safer. However, normal delivery may still be possible if there are no other complications in pregnancy.
The condition of the breech baby up to the time of delivery should receive special attention. The choice of delivery method must also be considered properly according to the doctor's advice.
Therefore, it is recommended that you check your pregnancy condition regularly with your doctor.Not only the he alth condition of the baby, but also the position of the baby in the womb. Thus, treatment steps can be taken immediately to prevent complications of breech babies or other danger signs of pregnancy.