Recognizing the Types of Back Pain Based on the Cause

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Recognizing the Types of Back Pain Based on the Cause
Recognizing the Types of Back Pain Based on the Cause

Back pain is a common condition and often improves without medical treatment from a doctor. However, there are some cases of low back pain that last a long time and require medical treatment from a doctor

Back pain can be in the form of stiffness and pain that feels sharp and stabbing in the muscles. In addition, the pain that appears can also worsen when you bend over, lift things, stand, or walk.

Recognize the Types of Low Back Pain Based on the Cause - Alodokter

Generally, low back pain is caused by problems with one or more parts of the waist, such as the ligaments, muscles, nerves, and bone structures that make up the spine, or disorders of the organs closest to the waist.

Types of Back Pain

Unspecified low back pain can occur due to mechanical processes (mechanical back pain) and inflammatory processes (inflammatory back pain). Here is the explanation:

back pain due to mechanical process

Back pain due to mechanical processes occurs when the spine, cartilage and soft tissues in the waist are injured. This condition is a common type of low back pain and most will heal within 2–4 weeks.

Mechanical back pain is generally caused by an acute injury event, such as a twist or a motor vehicle accident. In addition, mechanical low back pain can also occur due to cumulative injury events such as workplace injuries.

lumbago due to inflammation

Back pain due to inflammation or inflammation is pain associated with spondyloarthritis or arthritis of the spine. This condition generally occurs in the lower back and buttocks. Inflammatory low back pain is chronic and can last for more than 3 months.

There are several types of spondyloarthritis that can cause low back pain, including:

  • Enteropathic arthritis, related to inflammation of the intestines, such as Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis.
  • Psoriatic arthritis, which is arthritis that occurs in some psoriasis patients.
  • Reactive arthritis, which is painful arthritis that occurs due to certain bacterial infections.
  • Axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) which consists of:
    • Ankylosing spondylitis (AS), which is an inflammatory disease characterized by stiffness of the spine. This disease can also cause the sacroiliac joints and spine to fuse, hence the name “bamboo spine”.
    • Non-radiographic axial spondyloarthritis (nr-axSpA), which is inflammation of the hip joint that has symptoms similar to AS, but is not seen on x-rays.

Just like other causes of inflammatory low back pain, axSpA often occurs in people under 45 years of age. The pain that appears is often felt at night or early in the morning and is accompanied by the following symptoms:

  • Exhaustion
  • Pain worsens with rest and improves with exercise/activity
  • Heel pain

Until now, the exact cause of spondyloarthritis is not known. However, this condition is thought to be inherited from the family.

To understand the difference between low back pain due to mechanical processes and low back pain due to inflammation, the following is an explanation:

Mechanical Waist Pain Inflammatory Waist Pain(Inflammation)
Age at time of occurrence Symptoms can appear at any age The first symptoms usually appear at the age of <45 years
The onset of back pain Can be any time, varies Back pain persists for 3 months or more
Pain picture Varies Pain in the buttocks and pain that appears can be so severe at night that it interferes with sleep
Effect on physical activity Symptoms that appear can be relieved by resting Symptoms generally subside with exercise or exercise
Kickness in the morning Mild degree, just a moment Medium degree, stiffness > 30–45 minutes

Let's Know Is Your Back Pain Caused by Inflammation?

It was previously mentioned that back pain can be caused by many things. Well, to find out whether the type of low back pain you are experiencing is caused by inflammation or not, you can detect it yourself by answering some of the questions below:

  • Does the pain appear when you are under 40 years old?
  • Does the pain appear slowly and gradually?
  • Does the pain get better when you do activities?
  • Does the pain get worse after you rest (eg in the morning)?
  • Does the pain often appear at night?

If there are 4 YES answers from the five questions above, you are recommended to have your condition checked by a specialist in internal medicine consultant rheumatology so that further examination and appropriate treatment can be carried out.

What To Do If You Have AxSpA?

If the results of the examination state that you have axSpA, treatment steps can be taken by giving medicines from the doctor.

Several types of drugs given include oral/oral non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, such as naproxen, coxib group, and diclofenac, to relieve pain and stiffness in the waist.

Medication therapy using biologic agents in the form of injections can also be done, if other treatments are not able to relieve back pain that appears.

In several studies, long-term therapy with biologic agents has been shown to slow the deterioration and deterioration of spinal structures in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS).

In addition to treatment, you can also adopt a he althy lifestyle and do various stretching movements or light exercises to speed up the recovery period and increase body flexibility.

However, it is recommended that you consult an internal medicine specialist, a consultant rheumatologist, to determine whether your condition allows you to undergo light exercise or certain types of exercise.

If you experience low back pain that persists for 3 months or more, immediately consult a specialist in internal medicine consultant rheumatology so that proper examination and treatment can be carried out.

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