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There are different types of non-communicable skin diseases and each has different symptoms. Some of these skin diseases are harmless, but there are also some that need to be recognized early so that they can be treated quickly before they cause serious he alth problems
Skin is the largest organ in the human body and serves as a protector or body shield from various foreign objects, such as dust, chemicals, sunlight (UV rays), to viruses and germs. Because of this role, the skin can be susceptible to various he alth problems, ranging from infection, irritation, allergies, to inflammation or injury.
Skin diseases caused by infections, whether viral, bacterial, or fungal, can generally be contagious. However, skin diseases caused by causes other than infection are usually not contagious.
However, non-communicable skin diseases can cause annoying complaints, such as itching, bumps, skin rashes, dry skin, or changes in skin color that interfere with appearance.
Various Types of Non-Infectious Skin Diseases
Here are some types of non-communicable skin diseases that you need to know:
Dermatitis is a skin disease that occurs due to inflammation or irritation of the skin. This non-communicable skin disease can cause complaints of itching, dry skin, bumps, or rashes.
There are several types of dermatitis, namely atopic dermatitis or eczema, irritant and allergic contact dermatitis, and seborrheic dermatitis. This condition can be experienced by anyone at any age, including babies.
Eczema and allergic contact dermatitis are generally more at risk for people who have a history of allergies, asthma, or a history of similar diseases in the family. Meanwhile, irritant contact dermatitis is more at risk for people who are often exposed to objects or chemicals that are irritating to the skin, such as harsh chemicals, alcohol, detergents, or industrial waste.
The next non-communicable skin disease is psoriasis. This condition is characterized by red, scaly, crusty, and itchy patches of skin. Psoriasis can occur anywhere on the body, but is most common on the knees, soles of the feet, elbows, lower back, and scalp.
Psoriasis can flare up in a few weeks, subside for a while, and then come back. This disease is generally hereditary.
In psoriasis patients, symptoms of this disease can usually appear or recur due to several factors, ranging from skin infections, weather, injuries or wounds to the skin, stress, smoking or consuming alcoholic beverages, to the use of certain drugs.
Vitiligo is a non-communicable skin disease characterized by fading of the skin color around the hands, face, neck, eyes, or genitals. In addition to the skin, vitiligo also usually occurs in the hair and the inside of the mouth.
This condition can occur when melanocyte cells that produce melanin or the skin's natural dye stop working, resulting in a lighter or whiter skin or hair.
The cause can be due to various things, including immune system disorders, autoimmune diseases, heredity, excessive sun exposure, or a history of contact with certain chemicals in the long term.
Rosacea is a non-communicable skin disease that appears in the form of redness in the facial area, to be precise around the nose, cheeks, forehead, and chin. Rosacea will also usually cause the appearance of small red bumps filled with pus. These bumps can be similar to pimples.
In addition, rosacea can also cause other symptoms, such as dry skin, swelling, dry and swollen eyes, and an enlarged nose. Usually the symptoms of rosacea last for weeks and then disappear for a while.
Although it can affect anyone, this condition is more common in women aged 30–50 and fair-skinned. Until now, the exact cause of rosacea is not known, but this condition is thought to occur due to heredity and environmental factors, such as frequent exposure to sunlight.
Rosacea symptoms can also be triggered by a number of factors, including consumption of spicy foods or alcoholic beverages, extreme temperatures, sunlight or wind, stress, side effects of certain medications, and cosmetic products.
Melasma is one of the most common skin problems, especially for pregnant women. This non-communicable skin disease is characterized by patches or spots that are darker than the skin color. Usually these dark patches appear on the face or other areas of the body that are often exposed to the sun.
Melasma can occur because the melanocyte cells in the skin produce too much of the skin's natural pigment. This condition can be triggered by various factors, ranging from heredity, hormonal changes, sun exposure, to cosmetic products.
6. Pityriasis alba
Pityriasis alba is a type of eczema or atopic dermatitis that is most often experienced by children and adolescents aged 3-16 years. Symptoms include red or pink patches that are round or oval, scaly, and dry on the face, arms, neck, or chest. These patches can usually look similar to tinea versicolor.
The cause of pityriasis alba is not known for certain. However, this condition usually appears after exposure to intense sunlight. In addition, this non-communicable skin disease can also be more at risk for people who have dry skin or a history of eczema.
7. Pityriasis rosea
Pityriasis rosea is also a non-communicable skin disease. This skin disease is characterized by the appearance of a round or oval scaly rash on the chest, abdomen, or back. After that, usually will appear several rashes or smaller reddish spots around it. The appearance of these patches can be very itchy, but it can also not itch.
These symptoms usually last for a few weeks and go away on their own. Pityriasis rosea is generally experienced by adolescents and young adults around the age of 10-35 years.
The cause of this skin disease is not clearly known, but this disease is more at risk for people who have a history of viral infections, eczema, or side effects of drugs.
8. Skin cancer
Skin cancer is also a non-communicable skin disease. Skin cancer most commonly develops in areas of the skin that are frequently exposed to the sun, such as the scalp, face, lips, ears, neck, hands, or feet. However, skin cancer can also form in other areas of the body, such as the palms of the hands, under the nails, back, and on the skin around the intimate organs.
Skin cancer can occur when there is DNA damage in skin cells. This can be triggered by several factors, ranging from heredity, long-term exposure to sunlight or toxic substances, or excessive free radicals.
Skin cancer can be characterized by the appearance of lumps, spots, wounds that don't heal, and changes in the shape and size of the mole that are not normal.
Skin cancer is important to be detected and treated early before it develops into a more severe stage. If it is severe, skin cancer can spread and cause tumors or cancer to other organs of the body (metastasize), making it more difficult to treat.
In addition to the various diseases above, common skin diseases, such as acne, dandruff, dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans, and allergic skin reactions to drugs, also include non-communicable skin diseases.
If you experience skin complaints, especially if they are prolonged and difficult to treat, don't hesitate to consult a doctor. This is important so that the doctor can carry out an examination and provide the right treatment.