Causes of Broken Blood Vessels in the Brain and How to Treat it

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Causes of Broken Blood Vessels in the Brain and How to Treat it
Causes of Broken Blood Vessels in the Brain and How to Treat it

Broken blood vessels in the brain is a condition that can be fatal. Not only damage the brain, this condition can also be life threatening. Therefore, it is necessary to know what causes the rupture of cerebral blood vessels so that they can be watched out for and avoided

Blood vessels function to ensure the intake of oxygen and nutrients to all organs and tissues of the body has been met. Because of its important role, it is very dangerous if the blood vessels don't work or even burst.

Causes of Ruptured Blood Vessels in the Brain and Treatment Steps - Alodokter

Rupture of blood vessels can occur in various parts of the body and one of them is the brain. If a blood vessel rupture occurs in the brain, this condition can trigger a brain hemorrhage. This bleeding can be fatal because it causes swelling of the brain and the death of brain cells.

Risk Factors and Causes of Broken Blood Vessels in the Brain

There are several conditions that can trigger the rupture of blood vessels in the brain, namely:

1. High blood pressure

High blood pressure or hypertension experienced for years can cause the walls of blood vessels in the brain to become fragile. If not treated immediately, hypertension can be the main cause of brain bleeding.

2. Unhe althy lifestyle

Smoking habits, excessive consumption of alcoholic beverages, and the use of illegal drugs, such as heroin and cocaine, can result in impaired brain function.

In fact, harmful compounds contained in cigarettes, alcoholic beverages, and drugs can also trigger the rupture of blood vessels in the brain.

3. Head injury

Head injuries are one of the most common causes of cerebral hemorrhage in people under 50 years of age. Injuries to the head can result from falls or traffic accidents.

4. Aneurysm

An aneurysm is a condition when an enlarged blood vessel occurs due to a weakening of the vessel wall. If it's severe, blood vessels can burst and cause a lot of blood to enter the brain, causing a stroke.

The exact cause of aneurysm is not known. However, this condition is thought to be related to genetic factors and abnormalities in the formation of cerebral blood vessels.

5. Amyloid angiopathy

This condition is caused by abnormalities in the walls of blood vessels due to the buildup of beta amyloid protein. Amyloid angiopathy is often experienced by the elderly and people with dementia or Alzheimer's disease.

6. Blood vessel disorders

Blood vessel disorders can be in the form of weak blood vessels around the brain or blood vessels that are too large. This disorder can be suffered from birth although it is rare.

7. Heart trouble

In severe liver disease, disturbances in the production of blood clotting factors may occur. This can increase the risk of internal bleeding in various parts of the body, including the brain.

8. Blood disorders

Blood disorders or blood clotting disorders, such as hemophilia and sickle cell anemia, can lead to a decrease in blood platelet levels.

Besides some of the causes above, there are other risk factors that can increase the possibility of blood vessels bursting in the brain, namely the presence of a brain tumor and side effects of blood-thinning drugs.

Symptoms of Ruptured Blood Vessel

If a person experiences a ruptured blood vessel in the brain, there are several symptoms that can appear, including:

  • A sudden severe headache
  • Sudden tingling or paralysis of the face, arms or legs
  • Visibility, either in one eye or both
  • Difficulty swallowing
  • Difficulty controlling body coordination and loss of balance
  • Vomiting
  • Loss of consciousness, lethargic, sleepy, and not aware of the surrounding situation
  • Difficulty writing, speaking, reading, or understanding things
  • Often confused or delirious

Medical Treatment for Stroke Patients Due to Broken Blood Vessels

If a stroke occurs due to rupture of a blood vessel in the brain, the patient must be taken to the hospital's emergency department for adequate medical treatment.

Patients with ruptured blood vessels need immediate treatment in the form of drugs to stabilize blood pressure and respiratory support if the oxygen level in the blood is reduced or the patient is in a coma.

If needed, the patient can be given artificial respiration with a ventilator to ensure the brain and organs are getting enough oxygen. Giving fluids and drugs can be given through an IV.

Pain relievers, corticosteroids, anticonvulsants, and drugs to reduce brain swelling may also be given according to the severity of the condition.

In the hospital, patients need to undergo close observation. Vital signs, such as heart rhythm, blood oxygen levels, blood pressure and respiratory rate, to monitoring head cavity pressure also need to be monitored closely.

After the patient's condition is stable, the next steps will be determined to treat the bleeding that occurs, for example whether the patient needs surgery or not.

Many patients can survive after experiencing cerebral hemorrhage due to ruptured blood vessels. However, the chance will decrease if the initial bleeding is too severe or if you don't get medical help right away from the onset of symptoms.

Some patients who survive ruptured blood vessels in the brain may continue to experience sensory problems, seizures, headaches, insomnia, or memory problems. Therefore, for those who survive this condition, they still need other additional therapies, ranging from physiotherapy to talk therapy.

Improve Lifestyle Starting Now

Blood vessel rupture is a generally preventable condition. Preventive measures can be taken by stopping bad habits that can increase the risk of rupture of blood vessels, such as smoking and excessive alcohol consumption.

In addition, implementing a he althy lifestyle is also important, namely by consuming a balanced nutritious diet and exercising regularly for at least 30 minutes every day.

For those of you who suffer from heart disease or high blood pressure, treating both will reduce the risk of ruptured blood vessels in the brain. For people with diabetes, maintaining normal blood sugar levels can also reduce the risk of this condition.

Broken blood vessels in the brain is a medical emergency that requires immediate treatment at the hospital. The sooner treatment is carried out by a doctor, the higher the chances of recovery. If this condition is treated too late, the risk of fatal complications will be higher.

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