Macrosomia, a condition when a baby is born with excess weight

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Macrosomia, a condition when a baby is born with excess weight
Macrosomia, a condition when a baby is born with excess weight

Macrosomia is the medical term for babies born with an above-average weight. This condition can make the delivery process more difficult and dangerous for both mother and baby

In general, babies are born with a weight of 2.6–3.8 kilograms. However, in some conditions, babies can be born weighing more than 4 kilograms. Babies born with this excess weight are called macrosomia.

Macrosomia, a condition when a baby is born with excess weight - Alodokter

Macrosomia can make normal delivery more difficult. Not only that, babies who have macrosomia are also at high risk of suffering from several he alth problems later in life, such as obesity and diabetes.

Causes of Macrosomia

Macrosomia can be caused by several things, such as heredity, he alth problems in the mother during pregnancy, and impaired fetal growth.

In addition, there are several other factors that can also increase the risk of a baby experiencing macrosomia, including:

  • Being overweight or obese during pregnancy
  • Suffering from gestational diabetes
  • Suffered from hypertension during pregnancy
  • Has a history of giving birth to a baby with a large weight
  • Over 35 years of age when pregnant
  • Conceiving a baby boy

Not only that, macrosomia is also more at risk for babies who are not born even though 2 weeks have passed from the due date (HPL).

Recognizing the Signs and Symptoms of Macrosomia during Pregnancy

Signs and symptoms of macrosomia are often difficult to identify. An examination by an obstetrician is needed to determine whether the fetus is growing normally or has macrosomia.

There are two things that can be used as a sign that the fetus has macrosomia, namely:

Uterine fundus height is more than normal

The uterine fundus is the highest point of the uterus measured by the distance between the top of the uterus and the pubic bone. If the distance exceeds the normal limit, there is a possibility that the fetus has macrosomia.

Excessive amniotic fluid

Amniotic fluid can be one of the signs to detect macrosomia, because it can show how much urine is excreted by the fetus. The more urine that comes out, the more likely the fetus is to have macrosomia.

In addition to the two signs above, doctors can also perform ultrasound examinations to monitor fetal development and determine whether the fetus has macrosomia or not.

Macrosomia Complications in Mother and Baby

The following are some of the complications of macrosomia that may occur to the mother and baby during delivery:

1. Shoulder dystocia

Babies with macrosomia are at risk for shoulder dystocia when born with normal delivery. This condition occurs when the baby's head has managed to come out, but the shoulder is stuck in the birth canal.

Shoulder dystocia can cause a baby to suffer fractures, nerve injuries, brain damage, and even death.

2. Torn pussy

Giving a baby with too much body weight through the vagina can cause damage to the birth canal, such as tearing the vagina and the muscles between the vagina and anus.

3. Bleeding after childbirth

Damage that occurs in the vagina after giving birth to a baby with macrosomia can make it difficult for the muscles around the vagina to contract to close the birth canal again.

The birth canal that is not closed properly can cause the mother to experience excessive postpartum bleeding.

4. Uterine rupture

Uterine rupture is a condition when the uterine wall tears during childbirth. Although rare, uterine rupture can cause the mother to experience postpartum hemorrhage.

Not only that, uterine rupture can also cause fetal distress or fetal distress, which indicates that the baby is deprived of oxygen during delivery. The birth of a baby should be sought as soon as possible if a fetal emergency is known.

Babies with macrosomia are generally more difficult to deliver vaginally, because it can cause various complications, both for the mother and the baby itself.

Therefore, if the doctor states that your fetus is large and is at risk of complications during vaginal delivery, the doctor may recommend a Caesarean section as the method of delivery of the baby.

In addition to complicating the birth process, babies with macrosomia are at high risk of suffering from several he alth problems later in life, such as obesity, abnormal blood sugar levels, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome.

How to Prevent Macrosomia

To prevent the occurrence of macrosomia, you are advised to maintain the he alth of yourself and your fetus in the following ways:

  • Conduct regular pregnancy check-ups with the obstetrician
  • Consuming he althy and nutritious food during pregnancy
  • Maintain a he althy weight gain during pregnancy, which is around 11–16 kilograms
  • Controlling blood sugar levels, if suffering from diabetes
  • Move actively during pregnancy by exercising regularly or doing daily activities

Macrosomia does carry quite a lot of risks and complications, both for the baby itself and for the mother. However, this can be minimized with good and thorough preparation before and during pregnancy until the time of delivery.

If you are pregnant with a large baby, try not to panic and keep regular check-ups with the doctor. In this way, the doctor can monitor the condition of the fetus and plan the safest delivery method for you and your baby-to-be.

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