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The skull is one of the most important bones in the human skeletal system. The skull is composed of several bones with their respective functions
The skull bone plays a major role in shaping the structure of the head and face, as well as protecting the brain from injury. There are several types of bones in the human skeletal system, namely long, short, flat, irregular, and round bones. The bones of the skull are flat and irregular in shape.
Parts of the Skull and Their Functions
The skull consists of two groups of bones, namely the skull and facial bones.
Here are the parts of the skull:
1. Front bone
Forebone or forehead bone is able to support the front and back of the skull. The outside of this bone structure is flat and the inside is concave. The main function of the forebrain is to protect the brain and support structures of the head, such as the nasal cavity and eyes.
2. Parietal bone
The parietal bones are a pair of flat bones located on either side of the head, behind the front bone. This bone is often called the crown bone.
3. Temporal bone
The temporal bone or temple bone is located under each parietal bone. These bones are a pair of irregularly shaped bones that surround the middle and inner ear.The lower part is connected to the jawbone which helps the mouth open and close.
The temporal bone contributes to the structure of the skull while protecting the cerebrum and the membranes around it. This bone is also connected to a number of important muscles, such as the muscles that support chewing, swallowing, and the muscles that move the neck and head.
4. Occipital bone
The occipital bone is a flat, trapezoidal bone located at the very back of the skull. This bone has a hole that acts as a link between the spinal cord and the brain.
In particular, the occipital bone protects the part of the brain that processes vision. In addition, these bones also play a role in body movement, balance, and the ability to see and interact.
5. Sphenoid bone
The sphenoid bone or wedge bone is an irregular bone located in the middle of the skull, just below the forehead bone and in front of the occipital bone. This bone covers the width of the skull and forms most of the base of the human skull.
Just like other skull bones, the sphenoid bone has a function to protect the structure of the brain and nerves. In addition, the back of this bone also plays a role in the process of chewing and speaking.
6. Ethmoid bone
The ethmoid bone is one of the most complex bones located between the eyes. This bone is about the size of an ice cube, light in weight, and shaped like a sponge that helps form the eye sockets and nasal cavities.
The sinus cavities found in the walls of the ethmoid bone also have important functions, including producing mucus to trap harmful allergens, lighten the head, and shape vocal tone.
Meanwhile, facial bones are divided into 6 types, including:
The cheekbones or zygomatic bones are located just below the eyes. This bone is shaped like a rectangle that extends up to the outer side of the eye and down near the jaw.
The thicker and more jagged front of the cheekbones serve as a structure that holds the facial bones together while protecting the arteries, nerves, veins, and organs that lie beneath the skin's surface.
The cheekbones are attached to several other facial bones, including the nasal bones, jawbones, and bones in front of the ears. The lower part of the cheekbones also plays a role in helping the movement of the mouth. While the top of the cheekbones connect the facial bones to the top of the skull.
The upper jaw consists of 2 pyramidal maxillary bones fused in the middle. These two bones are located in the center of the face that separates the nasal and oral cavities. The maxillary bone contains the maxillary sinuses which are on each side of the nose.
The jawbone helps define the shape of the face. In addition, this bone is a place for the growth of the upper teeth and forms the roof of the mouth and the bottom of the eye socket. Thus, these bones also play a major role in supporting the process of chewing and speaking.
The lacrimal bone is located in the eye socket. This rectangular bone consists of two surfaces, one facing the nose and the other facing the eye.
The lacrimal bone is part of the tear-producing system that forms the structure and supports the eye.
Every human has two nasal bones which are located in the upper center of the face, precisely between the forehead bone and the upper jaw bone. This bone forms the bridge of the nose which is small and oval in size and shape, but can vary from person to person.
The nasal bone serves to bind the cartilage that forms the contours of the human nose.
The mandible or mandible is the largest bone in the human skull. The shape of the lower jaw bone consists of two parts, namely the horizontally curved part that forms the lower jaw line and the vertical that is connected on both sides of the body.
This bone forms the lower part of the skull, the lower tooth structure, and the mouth structure along with the maxillary bone. The mandible can also help move the mouth, such as chewing food.
The palatine bone is a bone that helps form the nasal cavity, the cavity under the eyes, and the roof of the mouth. This L-shaped bone is located at the bottom of the skull, behind the upper jawbone and in front of the roof of the mouth.
Clinically, these bones are home to the palatine nerves which serve as pain signals to the teeth and mouth.
The bones that make up the human skull above are held together by connective tissue called "stitches". These stitches are not fully fused when a baby is born. As we age, the gaps between the skull bones close and become stronger to protect the delicate brain structures.
By recognizing the parts and functions of the skull bones, it is hoped that you can provide more protection and attention to the head to avoid injury.
If there is a hard enough hit to the head or there is a complaint that may be related to a brain disorder, immediately go to the emergency room or the nearest doctor so that the right treatment can be given.