About Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC) and Things You Need to Know

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About Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC) and Things You Need to Know
About Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC) and Things You Need to Know

DIC (disseminated intravascular coagulation) is a condition when the blood clotting process occurs excessively, so that blood vessels in the body are blocked and blood flow is blocked. If not treated immediately, this condition can lead to various dangerous complications

When the body is injured or injured, platelets or platelets and blood clotting factors will make the blood clot to close the wound and stop bleeding. After the wound has healed, the blood clot will dissolve or disintegrate and the injured body part can function again.

About DIC (Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation) and Things You Need to Know - Alodokter

In certain cases, the blood clotting process can be overactive, resulting in too many blood clots in the body. This condition is called DIC.

Clumps or blood clots that form too much can cause blockage of blood vessels and interfere with the smooth flow of blood to important organs, such as the brain, heart, kidneys, and lungs.

As a result, these organs will be deprived of oxygen and nutrients, so they cannot function properly.

When it is severe, DIC can also cause the body to lack blood clotting factors, so that people who experience it can experience heavy bleeding. Heavy bleeding in DIC can even occur just because of a minor injury or even suddenly without any injury.

Different Causes of DIC (Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation)

DIC generally occurs due to a severe infection or injury, severe inflammation, or overactive blood clotting factors. In addition, there are several things that can increase the risk of DIC, including:

  • Severe blood infection or sepsis
  • Reaction to blood transfusion or organ transplant
  • Pregnancy complications, such as abruptio placentae
  • Cancer, especially leukemia
  • Severe damage or liver failure
  • Severe injuries, for example in severe head injuries, extensive burns, frostbite, or gunshot wounds
  • Surgery complications
  • Disorders of blood vessels, such as aneurysms and hemangiomas
  • Poisoning, for example from a poisonous snake bite
  • Side effects of drugs, such as anesthetics or anesthetics and certain types of drugs, such as cocaine and ecstasy

Some reports also mention that DIC can occur in COVID-19 patients with severe symptoms or who are in critical condition. This is thought to be related to the effect of COVID-19 which can increase blood viscosity.

Various Symptoms of Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC)

The most common symptom of DIC is spontaneous bleeding which can occur in several locations of the body, both inside and outside the body. DIC can also cause the following symptoms:

  • Easy to bruise
  • Red spots on skin surface
  • Reduction of blood pressure
  • Bleeding in the anus or vagina
  • Shortness of breath
  • Fever
  • Nosebleeds or bleeding gums
  • Coughing up blood
  • CHAPTER is black or bloody
  • Headache

DIC generally does not cause typical symptoms and can resemble symptoms of other diseases. Therefore, you need to immediately see a doctor when you experience the symptoms of DIC above, especially if you have a history of injury, infection, or blood disorders.

To diagnose DIC, the doctor can perform a physical examination and supporting examinations such as blood tests which include:

  • Compute blood count and erythrocyte sedimentation rate
  • Partial thromboplastin time (PTT) and prothrombin time (PT)
  • Total platelets and fibrinogen
  • Coagulation test
  • D-dimer

How to treat DIC (Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation)

DIC is an emergency that must be treated immediately by a doctor. The following are some treatments that doctors can do to treat DIC:

Administration of anticoagulant drugs

To overcome the problem of excessive blood clotting due to DIC, the doctor will give an anticoagulant drug called heparin. However, this drug cannot be given in cases of DIC that has already caused severe bleeding or a significant reduction in the number of platelets.

blood plasma transfusion

To increase the number of platelets or platelets that are drastically reduced in DIC patients, the doctor will provide a complete blood transfusion or blood plasma. This action also aims to increase various factors that can support blood clotting.

In addition, doctors can also give other drugs to treat the cause of DIC. For example, if DIC is caused by sepsis or a blood infection, your doctor may prescribe antibiotics. Meanwhile, if DIC has caused the patient to go into shock, the doctor can give intravenous therapy or blood transfusion.

Patients will also receive oxygen therapy to meet their oxygen needs. During DIC treatment, patients need to get close monitoring from the medical team at the hospital. Therefore, patients with DIC will usually undergo treatment in the ICU.

DIC is a serious medical condition that must be treated by a doctor immediately. If not treated quickly and appropriately, DIC can lead to serious complications such as organ damage or even death.

If you experience bleeding that doesn't stop or any of the other symptoms of DIC that have been mentioned previously, immediately consult a doctor or visit the nearest hospital so that you can get immediate treatment.

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