Understanding the Musculoskeletal System and Disorders that Can Happen

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Understanding the Musculoskeletal System and Disorders that Can Happen
Understanding the Musculoskeletal System and Disorders that Can Happen

The musculoskeletal system is a system consisting of muscles, connective tissue, nerves, and bones and joints. This system plays an important role in body movement. Therefore, if the musculoskeletal system is disturbed, the ability to move and carry out activities can be disrupted

With the musculoskeletal system, the body can move and carry out various activities, such as walking, running, swimming, to as simple as picking up an object.

Understanding the Musculoskeletal System and Disorders that Can Happen - Alodokter

The musculoskeletal system also plays a role in shaping posture and body shape and protecting various important organs, such as the brain, heart, lungs, kidneys, and liver.

Anatomy of the Musculoskeletal System

The musculoskeletal system is composed of various parts and tissues of the body, namely:

1. Bone

Bone is one of the main parts of the musculoskeletal system which functions to support and give shape to the body, support body movement, protect body organs, and store calcium and phosphorus minerals. Adults generally have about 206 bones.

Bone consists of an outer and an inner layer. The outer layer of bone has a hard texture and is made of protein, collagen, and various minerals, including calcium.

Meanwhile, the inside of the bone has a softer texture and contains bone marrow, which is where red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets or platelets are produced.

2. Joint

A joint is a connection between two bones. Some joints can be moved, but some are not.

Joints that cannot be moved are examples of joints found in the plates of the skull. Meanwhile, movable joints include the joints of the fingers and toes, elbows, wrists, shoulders, jaws, hips, knees, and ankles.

3. Muscle

There are three types of muscles that are part of the musculoskeletal system, namely skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle, and smooth muscle.

Skeletal muscles are muscles attached to bones and joints. This muscle can stretch and contract when the body moves, such as when walking, grasping objects, or when changing body position, such as bending and straightening an arm or leg.

Meanwhile, smooth muscle is a type of muscle found in body organs, such as the gastrointestinal tract and blood vessels. Smooth muscle activity is regulated by autonomic nerves, so they can work automatically.

Just like smooth muscle, cardiac muscle also works automatically in pumping blood throughout the body, but the structure of this muscle tissue is similar to skeletal muscle.

In the digestive tract, smooth muscle is responsible for moving the intestines so that food and drink can be digested, then excreted as feces. In blood vessels, smooth muscle is responsible for regulating blood flow by widening or constricting blood vessels.

4. Cartilage

Cartilage is a type of connective tissue that covers joints. In addition to being between bone joints, cartilage is also present in the nose, ears, and lungs.

Cartilage has a firm structure, but is more supple and flexible, unlike skeleton. Cartilage prevents bones and joints from rubbing against each other and acts as a physical damper when the body is injured.

5. Ligament

Ligaments are connective tissue that connect bones and joints. Ligaments consist of elastic fibers composed of protein. This connective tissue serves to support joints, such as knees, ankles, elbows, and shoulders, and allows movement of the body.

6. Tendon

Tendons are thick and fibrous connective tissue that serves to connect muscles to bones. Tendons are found throughout the body, from the head, neck, to the feet.

There are many types of tendons and one of them is the Achilles tendon, the largest tendon in the body. This tendon attaches the calf muscles to the heel bone and allows the foot and leg to move. Meanwhile, the rotator cuff tendon in the shoulder serves to support the movement of the shoulder and arm.

How the Musculoskeletal System Works

When you want to move your body, the brain will send signals through the nervous system to activate the skeletal muscles.

After receiving an impulse or stimulus from the brain, the muscle will contract. This muscle contraction will pull the tendons and bones to make the body move.

Meanwhile to relax the muscles, the nervous system will send messages to the muscles to relax and relax. Relaxed muscles will stop contracting, so body movements will also stop.

Various Disorders of the Musculoskeletal System

Disorders of the musculoskeletal system can cause various complaints, ranging from pain, muscle or joint stiffness, to difficulty moving. There are many disorders or diseases that can occur in the musculoskeletal system, including:

  • Injuries, such as fractures, dislocations, muscle injuries, and sprains
  • Deformity of bones, for example due to injury, osteoporosis, degenerative diseases, genetic disorders, and tumors or cancer
  • Osteomyelitis or infection of the bone and surrounding tissue
  • Joint disorders, such as arthritis, ligament tears, bursitis, joint dislocation, and joint pain
  • Knee joint disorders, including meniscus injuries and tears in the knee ligaments
  • Muscle problems, such as muscle tears, muscle atrophy, hamstring injuries, and sarcopenia or reduced muscle mass due to aging
  • Autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, vasculitis, ankylosing spondylitis, and lupus
  • Muscle cancer, for example, leiomyosarcoma smooth muscle cancer

How to Maintain a He althy Musculoskeletal System

In order for the musculoskeletal system to function properly, you need to maintain the he alth of this system and the he alth of the body as a whole. The method is as follows:

  • Do exercise regularly, for example by walking, swimming, weight training, yoga, or Pilates.
  • Improve your posture, by getting used to sitting and standing up straight.
  • Keep an ideal body weight to reduce excess stress on bones and joints.
  • Eat a balanced nutritious diet, especially foods that contain calcium, protein, and vitamin D, to keep bones strong.
  • Stop smoking and reduce alcohol consumption.

In addition, you also need to undergo regular he alth check-ups (check-ups) to the doctor to monitor the condition of the musculoskeletal system. This examination is important, especially for people who are elderly because they are more at risk of developing bone problems, such as osteoporosis.

The musculoskeletal system has a very big role in body movement and the ability to move. In addition, the inhibition of movement can cause general he alth problems.

Therefore, if you experience complaints related to the musculoskeletal system, such as pain when moving or muscles feel stiff, immediately consult a doctor.

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