Information on various COVID-19 vaccines in Indonesia

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Information on various COVID-19 vaccines in Indonesia
Information on various COVID-19 vaccines in Indonesia

Covid-19 vaccine is available in Indonesia. The government has started a vaccination program as an effort to break the chain of the spread of the Corona virus infection and suppress the number of COVID-19 cases, which is still increasing. As your guide, here's some information about the COVID-19 vaccine that you need to know

Information on Various COVID-19 Vaccines in Indonesia - Alodokter
Information on Various COVID-19 Vaccines in Indonesia - Alodokter

About Vaccines and Things You Need to Know

What is a vaccine?

A vaccine is a substance or compound that functions to form immunity against a disease. Vaccine content can be in the form of bacteria or viruses that have been weakened or killed, or part of the bacteria or viruses.

The vaccine can be given in the form of injections, oral drops, or through steam (aerosol).

Is it necessary to vaccinate?

Vaccination is the process of giving vaccines into the body. When a person has received a vaccine for a disease, his body can quickly form antibodies to fight the germs or viruses that cause the disease when he is exposed to it.

Therefore, vaccination is important as a form of self-protection against disease, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic.

What is the difference between vaccination and immunization?

Immunization is the process of forming immune substances (antibodies) against certain diseases after a person is vaccinated. In order for antibodies to form, a person must be vaccinated according to a predetermined dose and schedule.

The vaccination schedule depends on the type of vaccine to be given and the he alth condition of the person who wants to receive the vaccine.

To maintain the immune response to COVID-19 and its variants, a third or booster dose of COVID-19 vaccine may be considered. However, until now the government through the Ministry of He alth has not recommended giving the current dose of COVID-19 vaccine to the entire community.

So what is immunity?

Immunity is the body's system of protection against disease.

In addition to vaccination, adequate nutrition, adequate rest, regular exercise, and stress relief also need to be done to strengthen the body's immunity.

Why is vaccination important?

The benefit of giving vaccines is to prevent disease transmission, especially infectious diseases, because vaccines make the body recognize the bacteria or virus that causes disease so it can fight back more quickly.

If you have received a COVID-19 vaccination schedule, it is best if you vaccinate according to the schedule. Not only to protect yourself, but also those around you.

After getting the vaccine, you can do a serological test to see if your body has formed antibodies or immunity to the Corona virus. However, this antibody test is not mandatory for the general population, but only for research participants or certain groups.

Vaccine Making Stage

What are the stages of making a vaccine?

To ensure its effectiveness and safety, vaccines must go through research and pass clinical trials that can take years.

The following are several stages in the process of making a COVID-19 vaccine:

1. Exploration

The exploration stage is the initial stage carried out through research in the laboratory to identify natural or synthetic antigens that can prevent a disease.

Antigen is a foreign object that can stimulate the formation of antibodies in the body. The exploration stage to determine this antigen can take a long time.

2. Preclinical studies

The preclinical study stage is carried out by giving vaccines to experimental animals to determine their effectiveness and safety. At this stage, researchers will also examine whether the vaccine causes certain side effects.

3. Phase I clinical trials

In the phase I clinical trial phase, the vaccine will be administered to several he althy adults. The goal is to ensure the safety and effectiveness of vaccines in humans.

4. Phase II clinical trials

Phase II clinical trials are carried out by giving vaccines to a larger group of people, with more diverse ages and he alth conditions.

After that, the researchers will review and evaluate the effectiveness, safety, and appropriate dose of the vaccine, as well as assess the immune system's response to the given vaccine.

5. Phase III clinical trials

In phase III clinical trials, the vaccine will be given to more people with various conditions. Researchers will monitor the immune response and side effects of the vaccine over a period of time. This phase can take months to years.

6. Stage IV

After passing all clinical trials, the vaccine can get marketing authorization to be given to humans. In Indonesia, the distribution permit for vaccines is issued by BPOM. However, even though it can be used in general, the new vaccine needs to be researched and evaluated.

Vaccine Testing Phase and Expected Results

What is the expected end result of making a vaccine?

The purpose of conducting a series of clinical trials in the manufacture of vaccines is of course to ensure the safety and effectiveness of the vaccine before it is given to the public.

Because the COVID-19 vaccine is still very new, research and evaluation are still being carried out to assess the body's response and possible side effects of the COVID-19 vaccine in humans.

The results to be achieved with the manufacture and administration of the COVID-19 vaccine are a reduction in the number of positive cases and deaths due to COVID-19, as well as the formation of herd immunity. That way, the economic and social impact of this epidemic can also be minimized.

Profile of Vaccines to be Used in Indonesia

The following are some types of vaccines that have been approved by the Ministry of He alth of the Republic of Indonesia:

1. Pfizer

Country of Origin: United States

Basic material: mRNA

Storage temperature: -70oC

Efficacy claim: 94–95% efficacy

Clinical trial phase: Passed phase 3 clinical trial and obtained Emergency Use Permit (EUA) from the U. S. Food & Drug Administration (FDA)

Side effects: Pain at the injection site, fatigue, headache, chills, joint pain, and fever

2. Sinovac

Country of Origin: China

Basic material: Inactivated virus

Storage temperature: 2–8oC (refrigerator temperature)

Efficacy claims: Efficacy around 65.3% (in Indonesia)

Clinical trial stage: Passed phase 3 clinical trial and obtained Emergency Use Permit (EUA) from BPOM

Side effects: Pain or redness at the injection site, muscle aches, fever, and headache

Reason can be brought to Indonesia:

  • Storage can use a refrigerator or cool box, so that the process of distributing vaccines and carrying out vaccinations is easier.
  • Sinovac vaccine is among the top 10 fastest vaccine candidates and uses manufacturing methods that are already mastered by local companies, such as Bio Farma.

3. Moderna

Country of Origin: United States

Basic material: mRNA

Storage temperature: -20oC

Efficacy claim: 94.5% efficacy

Clinical trial phase: Completed phase 3 clinical trial and obtained Emergency Use Permit (EAU) from the U. S. Food & Drug Administration (FDA)

Side effects: Pain, swelling and redness at the injection site, fatigue, headache, muscle aches, chills, fever, and nausea and vomiting

4. Oxford/AstraZeneca

Country of Origin: England

Basic material: Viral vector

Storage temperature: 2–8oC (refrigerator temperature)

Efficacy claim: 62-75% efficacy

Clinical trial stage: Passed phase 3 clinical trial and obtained Emergency Use Permit from UK Authority and BPOM

Side effects: Pain, redness, and swelling at the injection site, fever, chills, nausea, joint and muscle pain, and headache

5. Novavax

Country of Origin: United States

Basic material: Protein subunit

Storage temperature: 2–8oC (refrigerator temperature)

Effective claims: 85–89%

Clinical trial phase: Phase 3 clinical trials completed in UK, Mexico, USA and South Africa

Side effects: Serious side effects such as allergic reactions to vaccines or anaphylaxis are very rare

6. Sinopharm

Country of Origin: China

Basic material: Inactivated virus

Storage temperature: 2–8oC (refrigerator temperature)

Efficacy claim: 79, 34% efficacy

Clinical trial stage: It has passed the phase 3 clinical trial stage and has obtained permission for use from the he alth authorities in China

Side effects: Generally mild, such as fever, pain and swelling at the injection site, and headache

7. Red and White – BioFarma

BioFarma in collaboration with the Eijkman Biomolecular Institute is still continuing to develop and research the COVID-19 vaccine. Clinical trials of this vaccine are scheduled to start sometime in June 2021.

8. Sputnik V

Country of Origin: Russia

Basic material: viral vector

Storage temperature: 2–8oC (refrigerator temperature)

Efficacy claim: 91, 6% Efficacy

Clinical trial stage: Has passed clinical trial phase 3

Side effects: pain at the injection site, flu, fever, headache, and fatigue.

Vaccination Plan in Indonesia

Who are the vaccine producers that will be used in Indonesia?

  • PT Bio Farma
  • AstraZeneca
  • China National Pharmaceutical Group Corporation (Sinopharm)
  • Modern
  • Novovax Inc
  • Pfizer Inc and BioNTech
  • Sinovac Biotech Ltd.
  • Gamaleya Research Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology (Sputnik V)

What is the planned distribution pattern for the COVID-19 vaccine?

Vaccine, supporting equipment, and other logistics related to the vaccine administration process will be distributed to Puskesmas, clinics, hospitals, and other he alth care facilities that have met the requirements for vaccination.

Not only medical personnel, the distribution of COVID-19 vaccines can also involve various parties, such as the TNI, Polri, and the Ministry of Transportation.

What are the criteria for people to receive the vaccine?

The following are some criteria for recipients of the COVID-19 vaccine:

  • Never confirmed to have COVID-19 or have recovered from COVID-19 for at least 3 months
  • Normal body temperature, no more than 37.5oC
  • Blood pressure below 180/110 mmHg at screening before vaccination
  • Pregnant women with gestational age above 13 weeks and he althy breastfeeding mothers
  • Children from 12 to 17 years old
  • Patients with diabetes mellitus can be vaccinated as long as there are no acute complications
  • People with HIV can be vaccinated against COVID-19 if their CD4 count is more than 200
  • Patients with lung diseases, such as asthma, COPD, or TB, can only be vaccinated if they have been controlled through medication (TB patients may be vaccinated after taking antituberculosis drugs regularly for more than 2 weeks)
  • No symptoms of ARI in the last 7 days and no medical conditions, such as allergies to vaccines and autoimmune diseases, such as lupus, rheumatoid arthritis, or Sjogren's disease

Cancer survivors can get vaccinated. However, if you have special conditions or a history of serious illness, you should first consult your doctor before undergoing vaccination.

If you haven't received the vaccine, what should you do?

Always apply he alth protocols, namely washing hands, wearing masks, and maintaining a physical distance of at least 1 meter from other people. As much as possible, avoid traveling outside the home or gathering in large crowds.

After traveling out of town or being in a situation with a high risk of COVID-19 transmission, try to do a PCR test or rapid antigen test and continue to quarantine for 1 week, even if the test result is negative.

What is the stage of giving vaccines in the community?

The government will provide the COVID-19 vaccine in stages, because the vaccine supply is not enough to be given to everyone at the same time.

The following is the schedule for administering vaccines that have been planned by the government:

Period I (January–April 2021)

  • Phase I: 1.3 million doses for he alth workers
  • Phase II: 17.4 million doses for public officials who cannot implement social distancing effectively and 21.5 million doses for the elderly (over 60 years old)

Period II (April 2021–March 2022)

  • Phase III: 63.9 million doses for people with high risk of transmission
  • Phase IV: 77, 4 million doses for the general public with a cluster approach, according to vaccine availability

Vaccination and its Relation to Herd Immunity

What is herd immunity ?

Herd immunity is a condition when most of the people in a group already have immunity to an infectious disease. The more people who are immune, the harder it will be for the disease to spread.

With herd immunity against COVID-19, it is hoped that people who cannot receive the vaccine due to certain conditions can also be protected from this disease.

So, what does herd immunity have to do with vaccination?

When a person gets a vaccine, his body will form a specific immunity against the disease that the vaccine can prevent.

That way, this person's immune system will be ready to fight the bacteria or virus that causes the incoming disease, so that infection does not occur. Even if there is an infection, the symptoms will be lighter and the recovery will be faster.

Well, that way, automatically the rate of disease transmission will also decrease. So, the more people who receive the vaccine, the less the disease will spread.

The Importance of Implementing He alth Protocols

After vaccination, is it okay to ignore he alth protocols?

The presence of a vaccine does not mean that it can immediately eliminate COVID-19. The potential for transmission of this disease still exists, especially since vaccination in Indonesia is carried out in stages.

To achieve herd immunity against COVID-19 disease, there needs to be around 60–80% of the entire population that is immune to this disease. This means that a minimum of 165 million people in Indonesia must get the COVID-19 vaccination.

This is one of the reasons why achieving vaccination targets in Indonesia takes a long time.

Therefore, continue to comply with he alth protocols by implementing physical distancing, wearing masks when outside the house, diligently washing hands, and always maintaining body resistance.

Don't ignore he alth protocols, even if you have been vaccinated

After receiving the COVID-19 vaccine, you are required to wait for 30 minutes at the he alth facility where the vaccination was carried out. This is important so that doctors or nurses can make observations to prevent Post Immunization Adverse Events (AEFI) for the COVID-19 vaccine.

If you do not show any symptoms after vaccination, you are allowed to go home.

Even though you have been vaccinated, you still have to comply with he alth protocols to prevent the transmission of COVID-19, such as washing hands, maintaining physical distance, and wearing masks when outside the house.

It should also be remembered that vaccines do not prevent COVID-19 absolutely. After receiving the vaccine, it doesn't mean you can gather and party in a crowd. Stay away from crowded places and try to stay at home.

The risk of transmission of the Corona virus still exists even though you have received the COVID-19 vaccine. So, take care of yourself for the people you care about.