Knowing Parenteral, Nutritional and Drug Administration Methods from Blood Vessels

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Knowing Parenteral, Nutritional and Drug Administration Methods from Blood Vessels
Knowing Parenteral, Nutritional and Drug Administration Methods from Blood Vessels

Parenteral is a method of giving nutrition, medication, or fluids through a vein. This method is often used in patients with digestive disorders, such as malabsorption, or patients who have recently undergone gastrointestinal surgery

The body gets nutrients from the food and drinks consumed daily. The food and drink will then go through a digestive process in the body.

Getting to Know Parenteral, Nutritional and Drug Administration Methods from Blood Vessels - Alodokter

However, the digestive system can sometimes experience disturbances, so that its ability to digest and absorb nutrients is disrupted.

When this happens, the body will find it difficult to obtain important nutrients, such as carbohydrates. Over time, the body can experience nutritional deficiencies.

To prevent and overcome this problem, you can get parenteral nutrition from a doctor. In addition to providing nutrition and fluids, parenteral methods can also be used to give drugs by injection into a vein or infusion.

This way of administering drugs is usually done for patients who have difficulty or can't swallow, or have digestive disorders.

Some Conditions That Require Parenteral Nutrition

Parenteral nutrition will be adjusted according to the patient's overall condition, the type of nutrition needed, and the illness.Some patients can receive parenteral nutrition for a short period of time, but there are also patients who need parenteral nutrition for the rest of their lives.

The following are some of the conditions that make a person need parenteral nutrition:

  • Cancer of the digestive tract, such as stomach cancer and colon cancer
  • Inflammatory bowel disease, such as Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis
  • History of surgery on intestine
  • Interference with blood flow or ischemia
  • blockage in the intestine, for example obstructive ileus
  • Malabsorption
  • Difficulty swallowing or dysphagia

Parenteral nutrition can also be given to babies who are unable to digest nutrients from breast milk or formula milk properly, such as in conditions of necrotizing enterocolitis or NEC.

Parenteral Nutrition Administration

Parenteral nutrition is given by injection or infusion. In general, there are two types of parenteral nutrition methods, namely:

Total parenteral nutrition (TPN)

This method of giving parenteral nutrition is carried out on patients who cannot digest all types of nutrients at all, so that all nutritional intake is given entirely through infusion.

Partial parenteral nutrition (PPN)

VAT is generally performed in the short term on patients who are dehydrated or have difficulty digesting certain nutrients (malabsorption).

Side Effects and Risks of Parenteral Nutrition

Although it is useful to meet the nutritional and fluid needs of the body, parenteral nutrition can also cause the following risks and side effects:

  • Infection, usually in the veins
  • Swelling in the hands, legs, face, or in certain organs, such as the lungs
  • Shortness of breath
  • Electrolyte disturbance
  • blood sugar rises excessively (hyperglycemia) or decreases too drastically (hypoglycemia)
  • Fever and chills
  • Blood Coagulation
  • liver dysfunction
  • Bile problems, such as gallstone formation or inflammation of the gallbladder
  • Reduced bone density, especially on long-term parenteral nutrition

To anticipate and prevent these side effects, the doctor will monitor the patient's condition while providing parenteral nutrition, medication, or fluids.

If the side effects that appear are potentially harmful to the patient, the doctor will stop or reduce parenteral nutrition or medication for some time until the patient's condition improves.

If your condition requires parenteral nutrition, don't hesitate to ask your doctor about the benefits, risks, duration, and things that need to be done while receiving the treatment.

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