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Covid-19 vaccination has started a while ago. However, not everyone can get the vaccine. What about people with chronic diseases who are a high risk group? Check out this article to find out about the administration and safety of the COVID-19 vaccine for people with chronic diseases
Patients with chronic diseases or comorbid diseases infected with the Corona virus have a higher risk of experiencing COVID-19 with severe symptoms. This is due to a disturbance in the respiratory system or a weakness in the immune system, making it more difficult for the body to fight Corona virus infection.
Therefore, the COVID-19 vaccine needs to be given to people with chronic diseases. However, it must be administered carefully and based on various factors, to prevent and minimize the appearance of side effects.
Recommendations for Giving COVID-19 Vaccines for Patients with Chronic Diseases
Based on the recommendations of the Indonesian Association of Internal Medicine Specialists (PAPDI), the COVID-19 vaccine can be given to sufferers of the following chronic diseases:
Asthma sufferers can get the COVID-19 vaccine as long as their symptoms are controlled and they rarely recur. Meanwhile, people with acute asthma should delay getting vaccinated until their asthma condition can be controlled properly.
Patients with type 2 diabetes can be injected with the COVID-19 vaccine if their he alth condition is declared good through a direct examination by a doctor and their HbA1C level is below 58 mmol/mol or 7.5%.
People with hypertension or high blood pressure can get the COVID-19 vaccine if their blood pressure is normal and under control, which is less than 140/90 mmHg with or without treatment. However, the maximum blood pressure value for hypertensive patients who wish to receive COVID-19 vaccination is 180/110 mmHg.
People infected with HIV can get the COVID-19 vaccine, as long as they are in good he alth and their CD4 white blood cell count is above 200.
Meanwhile, people with HIV whose condition is deteriorating or whose CD4 cell count is below 200, should postpone their COVID-19 vaccination until their condition improves.
Doctors will determine whether cancer sufferers can get the COVID-19 vaccine or not by considering several things, such as the type of cancer they have, their overall he alth condition, and the cancer treatment they are currently undergoing.
Vaccines require a he althy immune system to function properly, while some cancer treatments can interfere with the immune system.
According to PAPDI, lung cancer patients who are undergoing chemotherapy or targeted therapy may receive the COVID-19 vaccine. In addition to lung cancer, people with blood cancer (leukemia), pancreatic cancer, and prostate cancer can also receive the mRNA vaccine.
Several studies so far have stated that the mRNA-type COVID-19 vaccine is safe to be given to cancer patients.
Vaccines containing inactivated or inactivated viruses, such as the Sinovac vaccine, can actually be given to people with weakened immune systems, including people with cancer, and are even recommended to prevent certain diseases.
However, data regarding the effectiveness and safety of specific inactivated virus vaccines for COVID-19 in cancer patients is still very limited. That is why, the government has not recommended giving this type of vaccine to cancer patients.
People who are overweight or obese can get the COVID-19 vaccine if they don't have serious co-morbidities, such as diabetes or uncontrolled hypertension.
7. Heart disease
Patients with liver disease or impaired liver function may receive the COVID-19 vaccine, both inactivated virus (Sinovac) and mRNA vaccines. However, the effectiveness of the vaccine will decrease and the effect will wear off as liver disease worsens.
8. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
The COVID-19 vaccine can be given to patients with obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) whose symptoms are controlled. However, COPD sufferers who are experiencing a sudden worsening of symptoms are advised to postpone vaccination until the condition is resolved.
9. Kidney disease
For people with kidney disease, the type of COVID-19 vaccine that is believed to be safe to give is the mRNA vaccine. This type of vaccine is also safe for people with kidney problems who are undergoing dialysis (dialysis) or receiving a kidney transplant.
Unfortunately, the mRNA vaccine is not yet available in Indonesia, so people with kidney disease cannot yet undergo the vaccination program. The currently available inactivated virus vaccine is not recommended by PAPDI to be given to people with kidney disease.
10. Autoimmune disorders
The mRNA-type COVID-19 vaccine seems to have the potential to be given to people with autoimmune disorders, while the COVID-19 vaccine containing attenuated or killed viruses has not been declared safe for people with autoimmune disorders.
11. Heart disease
The COVID-19 vaccine which contains an inactivated virus cannot be given to patients with coronary heart disease and heart failure.This is because there is not enough data regarding the safety of the COVID-19 vaccine in this group. The vaccine that is considered safer for people with heart disease is the mRNA type vaccine.
In addition to the various conditions above, people who are experiencing psychosomatic disorders due to severe stress or depression are also considered eligible for the COVID-19 vaccine. However, these psychosomatic symptoms must be controlled before the patient undergoes vaccination.
According to the data so far, administering the COVID-19 vaccine to patients with certain chronic or comorbid diseases is considered safe and useful in preventing the appearance of severe symptoms in COVID-19, although further clinical trials are still needed to confirm this.
If you still have questions about the effectiveness and safety of the COVID-19 vaccine for people with chronic diseases, don't hesitate to consult a doctor. The doctor can also give advice on what things need to be done to control your disease while waiting for vaccination.
Don't forget, continue to follow he alth protocols by washing hands regularly, wearing masks, and maintaining physical distance from others. This is important to do to prevent the transmission of COVID-19, both before and after getting the vaccine.