Know the Types of Osteoporosis and How to Prevent It

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Know the Types of Osteoporosis and How to Prevent It
Know the Types of Osteoporosis and How to Prevent It

Osteoporosis is a disease that can affect anyone, both children and adults. At least, there are three types of osteoporosis that can occur. Find out what the differences between the three types of osteoporosis are and how to prevent them

Osteoporosis is a condition of reduced bone density which can cause bones to become porous and break easily. Osteoporosis initially does not cause any symptoms so it is rarely noticed early on. This condition is usually only discovered when a person has an injury that causes a fracture.

Know the Types of Osteoporosis and How to Prevent It - Alodokter

In general, osteoporosis is divided into two groups, namely primary and secondary osteoporosis. The following is a more detailed explanation of the types of osteoporosis:

Types of Primary Osteoporosis

Primary osteoporosis is further divided into two types, namely idiopathic osteoporosis which generally occurs in the elderly (elderly) and juvenile osteoporosis which occurs in children.

Idiopathic osteoporosis

Idiopathic osteoporosis has no known exact cause. However, this condition is often associated with age or aging. There are two types of idiopathic osteoporosis, namely:

  • Osteoporosis type 1, namely osteoporosis that occurs in women with low estrogen levels, usually in postmenopausal women
  • Osteoporosis type 2 or senile osteoporosis, which is a condition of bone loss associated with the aging process

Juvenile osteoporosis

Juvenile osteoporosis is a type of osteoporosis in children or adolescents with no known cause. The age of people with osteoporosis ranges from 1-13 years, but the average case occurs at the age of 7 years. Juvenile osteoporosis is a less common condition than other types of osteoporosis.

Types of Secondary Osteoporosis

Bone brittleness that occurs in secondary osteoporosis is caused by other factors, be it disease or the consumption of certain drugs. Factors that can cause this type of osteoporosis include:

  • Genetic diseases, such as renal hypercalciuria, cystic fibrosis, Marfan syndrome, and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome
  • Endocrine disorders, such as diabetes mellitus, Cushing's syndrome, acromegaly, hyperthyroidism, and hypogonadism
  • Malabsorption syndromes or malnutrition, such as anorexia nervosa, chronic liver disease, alcoholism, and protein, calcium, and magnesium deficiency conditions
  • Inflammatory diseases, such as Crohn's disease, rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and lupus disease
  • Hematological disorders, such as hemochromatosis, hemophilia, leukemia, lymphoma, and thalassemia
  • Drugs, such as anticonvulsants, antipsychotics, furosemide, and proton pump inhibitors

How to Prevent Different Types of Osteoporosis

In order to be active and have a good quality of life, osteoporosis should be prevented early. The following are some steps you can take to prevent various types of osteoporosis:

1. Exercise regularly

Muscles and bones need to be trained regularly to keep them strong. One of the things you can do to strengthen your muscles and bones is to lift weights for at least 30 minutes, 3 times a week.

2. Meet the needs of calcium and vitamin D

Calcium and vitamin D are important nutrients to improve and maintain bone he alth. Some foods high in calcium and vitamin D that you can consume include milk, cheese, yogurt, spinach, cabbage, soybeans, beef liver, egg yolks, and fatty fish, such as tuna, mackerel, and salmon.

3. Limit consumption of alcoholic beverages

People who frequently drink alcoholic beverages have a higher risk of developing osteoporosis. Therefore, experts limit alcohol consumption in adult men to 2 drinks per day and adult women to 1 drink per day. One glass of alcoholic beverage is equivalent to 350 ml of beer or 125 ml of wine.

4. Avoid smoking habit

People who actively smoke are also more at risk of fractures due to osteoporosis, even the recovery time will be longer. In addition, most women who smoke will produce less estrogen and tend to go through menopause earlier, so the risk of bone loss is higher.

By knowing the type of osteoporosis and how to prevent it, you are expected to be able to better anticipate this disease. If you are among those who are more prone to osteoporosis, in addition to taking preventive steps early on, you should also check with your doctor regularly.

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