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Artificial breathing is a method of giving oxygen to someone who has difficulty breathing or stops breathing. Artificial respiration can be given manually or using a breathing apparatus
Artificial respiration is part of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) or cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), which is a first aid technique in conditions of respiratory or cardiac arrest. Both conditions can be caused by many things, such as a heart attack, serious injury, or drowning.
When breathing stops, the supply of oxygen in the blood also stops. Lack of oxygen supply can cause brain damage to death in just 8–10 minutes, so first aid must be done immediately.
The stages of cardiopulmonary resuscitation are compression, airways, and breathing (C-A-B). Compression is the stage of pressing the chest to help the heart pump blood, followed by airways as an effort to open the airway, and breathing to give artificial respiration.
Various Artificial Breathing Techniques You Need to Know
Giving artificial respiration can be done manually or using a breathing apparatus. However, the use of the tool must be carried out by medical personnel. Here are some artificial respiration techniques you need to know:
1. Mouth to mouth
Mouth to mouth or mouth-to-mouth breathing is a common artificial respiration technique, but is no longer recommended.
The mouth to mouth technique can be used by anyone when they want to give first aid to people who have stopped breathing while waiting for help to arrive.
If the mouth of the person who wants to be helped is injured, artificial respiration can be done from the mouth of the rescuer to the nose of the person who wants to be helped. The following is a sequence of steps for giving artificial respiration from mouth to mouth or nose:
- Remove the person experiencing respiratory arrest to a safe place.
- Check the level of consciousness of the person you are trying to help by calling or tapping the chest or shoulder.
- If the victim is unconscious, not breathing, and there is no heartbeat or no pulse, immediately ask someone else to call an ambulance.
- While waiting, give help by pressing the victim's chest (compression) 30 times and giving artificial respiration 2 times.
- To open the airway, carefully lift the victim's chin so that the head is tilted up.
- Pinch the victim's nostril, take a deep breath, and place your mouth so that it covers the victim's mouth. If there is a wound in the victim's mouth, cover his mouth, place your mouth over the victim's nose. Inhale, then notice if the victim's chest rises. If the chest does not rise, repeat by opening the airway and giving a second breath.
- Do this until medical help arrives.
Before giving mouth-to-mouth artificial respiration, you must understand that this method carries the risk of transmitting diseases that can be spread through droplets or saliva, such as hepatitis A and COVID-19. If there are sores in the mouth, there can also be transmission of diseases through blood, such as hepatitis B or HIV.
To avoid this, a mouth to mouth resuscitation device was created. The tool, which is generally made of silicone or PVC, serves to prevent direct contact with the victim's saliva.
2. A mbu bag or bag valve mask
Ambu bag is an air pump that is operated by pressing a bag filled with air. This device allows the patient to get a supply of oxygen when experiencing respiratory arrest. The use of ambu bags must be carried out by medical personnel.
In order for this tool to work optimally, the ambu bag mask must be placed properly on the patient's mouth and nose, so that there is no gap for air to escape. In addition, the patient's lying position must also be correct so that the airways are completely open.
3. Nasal cannula and oxygen mask
Nasal cannula or nasal cannula is an oxygen tube that is placed in the nose. This tube has two prongs that are inserted into the two nostrils to deliver oxygen.
Meanwhile, oxygen masks are special masks that are placed on the face and cover the patient's nose and mouth. This mask is connected to an oxygen tube to deliver oxygen to the patient.
Different from the mouth to mouth technique and the use of an ambu bag which is used when the patient's condition is unable to breathe spontaneously, a nasal canulla or oxygen mask is used when the patient is still able to breathe on their own.
The use of a nasal cannula or oxygen mask is used to make it easier for the patient to breathe, without causing interference when swallowing or speaking.
The device is often used in patients with pneumonia, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, sleep apnea, or respiratory disorders in children and newborns.
Intubation is an artificial respiration technique performed by doctors to open the airway and provide oxygen. This step is done by inserting a special tube called an endotracheal tube (ETT) into the patient's windpipe through his mouth.
Intubation is performed as an emergency procedure for a patient who is unconscious and unable to breathe, to keep the airway open and prevent the patient from losing his life due to difficulty breathing. This procedure is generally performed in the emergency department (IGD) and ICU.
Although the artificial respiration technique above involves a lot of breathing apparatus and is generally performed by medical personnel, that doesn't mean you as a layman don't need to know about it.
You can still learn how to give artificial respiration using the mouth to mouth method as part of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR).
This skill can be useful if one day someone around you faints accompanied by respiratory or cardiac arrest, so you can take CPR to save that person's life.
While performing rescue breaths and chest compressions, don't forget to keep calling the ambulance on 118 and the police on 112 for help.
Perform artificial respiration until the person being helped shows a response in the form of a pulse and can breathe on their own or until medical help arrives.