Table of contents:
- Types of Mental Illness
- Mental Illness Symptoms
- Causes and Risk Factors of Mental Illness
- Diagnosis and Treatment of Mental Illness
Mental illness, also known as mental he alth disorders, is a term that refers to various conditions that affect a person's thoughts, feelings, moods, or behavior. This condition can occur occasionally or last for a long time
Mental illness has many types. Each type has different symptoms, depending on the severity. The exact cause of mental illness is not yet known, but there are many factors that are thought to trigger this condition.
Even so, mental illness can still be identified, treated, and controlled with a combination of psychotherapy and drugs from doctors.
Types of Mental Illness
There are more than 200 types of mental illness that a person can experience. However, there are several types of mental illness that quite often occur, namely:
1. Anxiety disorder
Anxiety disorder is one of the most common types of mental illness. This disorder can make sufferers feel afraid, excessively anxious, or threatened when dealing with certain objects or situations.
Depression is also a type of mental illness that often occurs. Depression is classified as a mood disorder that can cause symptoms, such as persistent feelings of sadness, hopelessness, and even suicidal ideation. These symptoms can be considered depression if they persist for more than 2 weeks.
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common type of mental illness in children and can continue into adulthood. People with ADHD usually tend to be hyperactive and have difficulty maintaining focus on one thing.
4. Eating disorders
Eating disorders are a type of mental illness related to food consumption. Sufferers can eat too little or too much food. Generally, this disorder is related to the sufferer's anxiety related to his weight and body shape.
5. Post-traumatic stress disorder
This is a disorder that occurs after a person has experienced a traumatic event, such as abuse, war, natural disaster, or a serious accident.
Post-traumatic stress disorder can make sufferers continue to feel afraid and stressed because they are imagining a traumatic event, even long after the event has ended.
Schizophrenia is a type of mental illness that occurs when the sufferer is unable to distinguish between reality and his or her own thoughts. This disorder can cause sufferers to experience unrealistic thoughts, hallucinations, and behavioral changes.
Mental Illness Symptoms
Mental illness symptoms can vary, depending on the disease and its severity. These symptoms can come from disturbances in the emotions, thoughts, or behavior of the sufferer.
The following are some examples of symptoms of mental illness in general:
- Prolonged sad feelings
- Difficulty thinking or reduced ability to concentrate
- Excessive fear, worry or guilt
- Extreme mood swings
- Withdrawal from social circles
- Prolonged tired
- Changes in sleep pattern
- Inability to cope with everyday problems
- Difficulty understanding situations or other people
- Big changes in eating habits
- Addiction to alcohol or illegal drugs
- There are thoughts or even actions of suicide
In addition to the symptoms above, people who suffer from mental illness can also feel physical symptoms, such as stomach pain, backache, or headaches. Symptoms like this are called psychosomatic symptoms.
Causes and Risk Factors of Mental Illness
Until now, the exact cause of mental illness is still unknown. However, the following factors can increase a person's risk of developing mental illness, such as:
- Traumatic experience
- History of mental he alth disorders from family members, such as parents or siblings
- Stressful problems, such as financial problems, the death of a close relative, bullying, or parental divorce
- History of diseases, such as diabetes
- Brain damage from serious physical injury, such as a blow or blow to the head
- Use of alcohol and illegal drugs
- History of childhood abuse and neglect
Diagnosis and Treatment of Mental Illness
To diagnose the mental illness condition suffered by the patient, the psychiatrist will begin by reviewing the symptoms and complaints felt by the patient or those around the patient, the history of drugs or supplements consumed by the patient, as well as the history of mental illness in the patient and his family..
After that, the psychiatrist will also perform a physical, neurological, laboratory, and radiological examination. This is important to rule out the possibility of physical illness that can cause symptoms of mental illness, such as thyroid disease or stroke.
If a psychiatrist diagnoses that a patient suffers from mental illness, generally the treatment that will be given is as follows:
1. Cognitive behavioral therapy
This is a type of psychotherapy that is done to change and develop the patient's mindset and behavior from negative to more positive. This therapy can be given to people with bipolar disorder, depression, anxiety disorders, and schizophrenia.
2. Interpersonal therapy
Interpersonal psychotherapy is done with the aim of improving relationships and the way patients interact with other people, such as partners, family, or friends. Patients will be taught how to empathize and resolve conflicts with others.
3. Dialectical behavior therapy
Generally, this therapy is used for patients with borderline personality disorder, but it can also be used for other types of mental illness.This is a type of psychotherapy that is carried out with the aim of helping mental illness patients manage and respond to negative emotions or impulsive behavior.
In addition to psychotherapy, psychiatrists may also prescribe drugs for mental illness patients. Prescribing these drugs aims to reduce the symptoms felt by the patient, not to cure his mental illness.
The following are some examples of drugs for mental illness patients:
- Antidepressant drugs, usually prescribed for patients with depression, anxiety disorders, and eating disorders
- Antipsychotic drugs, usually prescribed for patients with schizophrenia and chronic anxiety disorders
- Mood stabilizer drugs, usually prescribed for patients with bipolar disorder
- Sleeping pills and sedatives, usually prescribed for patients with sleep disorders and chronic anxiety disorders
Mental illness has various forms. Although not seen as something that interferes with the function of organs, this condition can cause sufferers to not be able to function and socialize as they should. Mental illness also makes sufferers vulnerable to hurting themselves.
Therefore, mental illness needs to be diagnosed and treated immediately. Unfortunately, mental illness is often not considered a disease and is even labeled bad by society. This makes people with mental illness ashamed to go to the doctor and suffer more.
In fact, mental illness is not something to be ashamed of. Just like physical illnesses, such as colds or diabetes, mental illness is a common medical problem that can be found and can be treated.
So, if you experience symptoms of mental illness as mentioned above or have relatives who experience it, don't hesitate to consult a psychologist or psychiatrist.