Table of contents:
- Conditions Treatable by a Pediatrician Specialist in Infection and Tropical Pediatrics
- Various Actions Performed by Pediatricians Specialist in Infections and Tropical Pediatrics
- When is it necessary to take the child to the pediatrician, specialist in infection and tropical paediatrics?
- Things to Prepare Before Consulting a Pediatrician Specialist in Infection and Tropical Pediatrics
The role of pediatric infectious specialists and tropical pediatricians is urgently needed to diagnose and determine appropriate treatment for infants, children, and adolescents suffering from infectious diseases
Pediatricians who specialize in infection and tropical pediatrics are pediatricians who have deeper knowledge and competence to diagnose and treat various infectious diseases or tropical diseases in children.
Tropical diseases are diseases caused by infections, ranging from viral, bacterial, fungal, to parasitic infections. This type of disease is commonly found in tropical areas, including Indonesia.
The spread or transmission of tropical diseases can occur through direct contact between humans or through disease-carrying animals (vectors), such as mosquitoes and insects.
Conditions Treatable by a Pediatrician Specialist in Infection and Tropical Pediatrics
A pediatrician who specializes in tropical diseases has competence in diagnosing, treating, and preventing various tropical infectious diseases in children, including:
1. Dengue fever
Dengue fever is a tropical disease caused by infection with the dengue virus. This virus can be transmitted through the bite of the Aedes aegypti mosquito and can cause a decrease in the number of platelets or blood platelets.
A child suffering from dengue fever may experience symptoms such as high fever, headache, pain behind the eyes, muscle and bone pain, and spontaneous bleeding, such as nosebleeds or red spots appearing on the skin.
Malaria is a tropical infectious disease that is still endemic (mostly found) in Indonesia. This disease is caused by the malaria parasite or Plasmodium and is transmitted through mosquito bites.
Children with malaria can experience various symptoms, such as fever, weakness, chills, headache, nausea, vomiting, sweating a lot, decreased appetite, dizziness, and muscle aches.
Cases of worm infection in children include roundworm infection, whipworm infection, and hookworm infection. This tropical disease often causes no symptoms.
However, some children who suffer from intestinal worms can experience symptoms such as itching and sore anus, insomnia, diarrhea, weight loss, lack of appetite, and weakness.
If not treated properly, intestinal worms can cause children to experience anemia, stunted growth and development, and malnutrition (malnutrition).
4. Chicken Pox
Chickenpox is a tropical disease that often occurs in children. However, this disease can also occur in adults.
Children usually get chickenpox when they come into contact with someone with chickenpox. This tropical disease caused by viral infection can cause sufferers to experience symptoms in the form of rashes and blisters on the skin that feel itchy, cough, fever, weakness, and swollen lymph nodes.
5. Elephant Feet
Filariasis or elephantiasis is a tropical disease caused by filarial worms. This disease can be transmitted through mosquito bites and causes obstruction of lymph flow.
The main symptom of elephantiasis is swelling of the legs accompanied by thickening of the skin, dry and cracked skin, and the appearance of sores on the skin. Although called elephantiasis, filariasis not only attacks the lymph channels in the legs, but also in the arms and genitals.
6. Tuberculosis (TB)
Tuberculosis in children occurs because children inhale the bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis through sputum sprinkling from TB patients. In addition to attacking the lungs, this disease can also attack other organs such as the skin, lymph nodes, bones, and brain.
Some children with TB do not experience any symptoms. However, some other children may experience various symptoms such as fever for more than two weeks, cough that does not go away, body feels weak, swollen lymph nodes, and weight loss.
Measles is a tropical infectious disease caused by a virus. Children can get measles if they come in contact with someone with measles.
Children with measles may experience symptoms such as cough, runny nose, and fever. Next, white patches will appear in the mouth, accompanied by a red rash on the face. Over time, the rash can spread all over the body.
Leptospirosis is a disease caused by the bacterium Leptospira interrogans. This bacterium can be spread through the urine or blood of an infected animal, such as a rat, cow, or pig. This tropical disease generally occurs more often during the rainy season or during floods.
Leptospirosis can cause symptoms in the form of fever, nausea, vomiting, fever, diarrhea, weakness, muscle aches, and yellow skin and eyes. If not treated properly, this disease can lead to dangerous complications, such as meningitis, blood infection or sepsis, as well as kidney and liver damage.
9. Typhoid fever
Typhoid fever or typhus is a tropical infectious disease that often attacks children. This disease is caused by the bacteria Salmonella typhi or Salmonella parathypi which is often found in food or drinks that have been contaminated with these bacteria.
Children with typhoid fever may experience symptoms in the form of fever for several weeks, diarrhea, constipation, abdominal pain, muscle aches, weakness, and lack of appetite. If left untreated, typhoid fever can cause complications in the form of peritonitis, ulcers in the intestines, to blood poisoning or sepsis in children.
Tetanus is a dangerous tropical infectious disease. Tetanus is caused by infection with the bacterium Clostridium tetani, which enters the body through wounds on the skin. In addition to children, tetanus can also occur in infants, especially babies born without medical assistance or unsterile equipment.
In addition to the various diseases above, pediatric infectious specialists and tropical pediatricians also have competence in dealing with various other diseases, such as:
- Respiratory tract infections, such as influenza, pneumonia, and ARI
- Bone and soft tissue infections, such as osteomyelitis and septic arthritis
- Diarrhea due to infections in the gastrointestinal tract, such as gastroenteritis and cholera
- Infection of the lymph nodes or lymphadenitis
- Fungal infection
Various Actions Performed by Pediatricians Specialist in Infections and Tropical Pediatrics
In diagnosing tropical infectious diseases in infants and children, pediatric infection specialists and tropical pediatricians can perform physical examinations and supportive examinations, such as:
- Blood and urine test
- Culture of blood, urine, feces, and phlegm
- radiological examination, such as X-rays, ultrasound, CT scan, and MRI
After the diagnosis of the disease is known, the pediatrician, a tropical infection pediatrician, can provide treatment in the form of:
This sub-specialist doctor can provide medicines to treat tropical diseases suffered by children.For example, antibiotics are used to treat bacterial infections, antivirals are used to treat viral infections, and antifungals are used to treat conditions caused by yeast infections.
In addition, doctors can also give other medicines, such as fever reducers such as paracetamol or ibuprofen to treat fever in children.
Infants, children or adolescents suffering from certain tropical diseases need to be treated in hospital.
During treatment, tropical infection specialist pediatricians can provide intravenous fluid therapy, oxygen therapy, or other treatments according to the patient's needs. In severe cases, doctors may need to treat patients in the NICU.
In addition to diagnosing and treating, pediatricians who specialize in tropical infections will also evaluate the completeness of the child's immunizations. If the child has not completed his immunizations, the doctor will provide immunizations according to a predetermined schedule.
When is it necessary to take the child to the pediatrician, specialist in infection and tropical paediatrics?
Children with tropical infectious diseases may be referred to a pediatric tropical infection specialist by a general practitioner or pediatrician. Usually, children need to be examined by this subspecialist if they experience the following signs and symptoms:
- High fever that does not go away and the cause is unknown
- Loss of consciousness or coma
- Less want to eat and drink
- Swollen lymph nodes
- Shortness of breath
- Skin and eyes look yellow
- Cough, diarrhea, or vomiting that doesn't go away
Not only that, children who have a history of previous infections or have a history of infection while in the womb will usually be advised to seek treatment from a pediatrician who specializes in tropical infections.
Things to Prepare Before Consulting a Pediatrician Specialist in Infection and Tropical Pediatrics
In order for the examination and treatment carried out by pediatricians who specialize in tropical infections to run smoothly, you as a parent need to prepare and do the following things:
- Make notes related to the history of the child's illness and medical treatment that has been carried out, including the use of drugs, supplements, herbal medicines, or certain medical procedures.
- Create a list of questions to ask the doctor, such as a diagnosis of disease in children and their causes, options for treating the disease and its risks, as well as the estimated cost required.
- Tell the doctor about how you and your child live, how clean your house, sanitation and living environment are.
- Also include notes regarding the child's daily activities, history of allergies, growth and development, and contact history of children with sick people.
If your child is experiencing symptoms that suggest a tropical infectious disease, don't hesitate to consult a doctor immediately. With proper treatment early on, the child's chances of recovering and avoiding complications will be higher.