Table of contents:
- Diseases That Can Be Treated by a Gynecologist Subspecialist Oncology
- Duties and Medical Actions Performed by Oncology Subspecialist Gynecologists
- When to Consult a Gynecologist Subspecialist Oncology?
- Preparation for Consultation with Obstetrician Subspecialist Oncology
Oncology sub-specialist obstetricians are doctors who have special expertise in treating tumors and cancers in the female reproductive organs. This includes tumors and cancers affecting the uterus, ovaries, cervix, vagina and vulva
Obstetricians who specialize in oncology are doctors who study gynecological oncology. Oncology is a branch of medical science that focuses on cancer and its treatment, while gynecology is a branch of medical science that focuses on the he alth of the female reproductive organs.
The oncology subspecialist obstetrician has the title of Obstetrics-Gynecology Specialist, Consultant Gynecologist Oncology or abbreviated as Sp.OG (K)Onk. To get this degree, a general practitioner must first complete the study program in obstetrics and gynecology, then take several years of oncology subspeci alty education.
Diseases That Can Be Treated by a Gynecologist Subspecialist Oncology
The following are various diseases that are treated by oncology subspecialist obstetricians are:
1. uterine cancer
Uterine cancer most often occurs in women who have passed menopause or are 50 years old and over. A woman is more at risk of developing uterine cancer if she is obese, has had hormone replacement therapy, or has a family member who has had uterine cancer.
Uterine cancer often causes symptoms in the form of bleeding from the vagina and pain in the pelvis.
2. Cervical cancer
Cervical cancer is the most common type of cancer in women. In most cases, this cancer is associated with a sexually transmitted infection, namely HPV infection.
Cervical cancer often only causes symptoms when it has developed into an advanced stage or stage. Symptoms that appear can include vaginal bleeding outside of menstruation, after sex, or after menopause as well as vaginal discharge that smells and hurts every time you have sex.
3. Ovarian cancer
Ovarian cancer is more common in women after menopause or the elderly (elderly) and women who have a family history of ovarian cancer.
Ovarian cancer is usually only detected when it has entered an advanced stage or has spread to other organs. Symptoms can include abdominal pain, pelvic pain, and vaginal bleeding.
4. Vulvar cancer
Vulvar cancer is characterized by the appearance of lumps or sores in the vulvar area, including the vaginal lips and clitoris. This cancer is more common in older women and generally those who have gone through menopause.
5. Vaginal cancer
Vaginal cancer is a rare cancer and often causes no symptoms in its early stages. Vaginal cancer at an advanced stage usually causes itching and lumps in the vagina, pelvic pain, and pain when urinating and having sex.
Endometriosis occurs when the tissue that forms the inner lining of the uterine wall grows outside the uterus. This condition can cause complaints of severe pain during menstruation, and can even cause infertility.
Myomas or uterine fibroids are benign tumors that grow in the uterus. The typical symptom of fibroids is heavier or longer menstrual bleeding, with menstrual pain that is more severe than usual.
Myoma is more common in women over the age of 40. In addition, the risk of fibroids is higher in women who have a family history of fibroids.
8. Ovarian cyst
Ovarian cysts are benign tumors in the form of lumps or fluid-filled sacs located in a woman's ovaries. Symptoms include pelvic pain, flatulence, and irregular periods. Usually, these symptoms only appear when the size of the cyst gets bigger.
9. Gestational trophoblastic
This disease can appear early in pregnancy and is a rare type of tumor. Gestational trophoblasticity occurs when the trophoblastic tissue that forms after fertilization is deformed.
As a result, the tissue does not develop into a fetus, but causes abnormalities in the form of pregnancy or tumors.
Duties and Medical Actions Performed by Oncology Subspecialist Gynecologists
The scope of duties of an oncology subspecialist obstetrician is quite broad, starting from providing consultations, diagnosing diseases, to determining treatment steps and preventive measures according to the patient's illness.
If a patient requires surgery, the doctor will treat the patient before, during, and after the surgical procedure, as well as monitor the progress of the patient's condition after undergoing treatment at the hospital.
In dealing with patients' illnesses, obstetricians who specialize in oncology can work together with other doctors, such as obstetricians, hematology-oncology specialists, radiation oncologists, and surgeons, and are assisted by nurses.
To determine the diagnosis of the disease, the oncology subspecialist obstetrician will trace the patient's medical history and symptoms and perform a physical examination.
Furthermore, the doctor will perform several supporting examinations, such as:
- Blood and urine test
After the diagnosis is confirmed, the doctor will determine the treatment method according to the patient's needs. The type of treatment that the doctor will choose depends on the type of disease experienced by the patient, the affected organ, the stage or stage of the cancer, and the general he alth condition of the patient.
Medical actions that an oncology subspecialist obstetrician can take include:
Surgery procedures performed by obstetricians who specialize in oncology are aimed at removing tumors or cancers in the female reproductive organs, such as the ovaries, uterus, cervix, vulva, and vagina.
The operation can be done by general surgery with a wide incision or laparoscopic surgery with a smaller incision.
Radiation therapy or radiotherapy aims to kill cancer cells using high-power radiation beams, such as X-rays or proton beams. Radiotherapy can also be done before a surgical procedure to reduce the size of the tumor for easy removal or after surgery to reduce the risk of cancer cells growing back.
Radiation therapy can be done from the outside (externally) by shining a light on the part of the body that is the location of cancer cells. In the case of vaginal cancer and uterine cancer, radiation therapy can be done by implanting a radioactive implant in the vagina for a certain period of time.
Chemotherapy is a method of treatment by giving drugs to kill cancer cells. Doctors can give one or more chemotherapy drugs in the form of injections or oral drugs, depending on the patient's condition.
Just like radiotherapy, chemotherapy can be done before a surgical procedure to shrink the size of the cancer for easy removal.Chemotherapy can also be combined with radiation therapy, for example in cases of large tumors or cancer that has spread to the lymph nodes.
When to Consult a Gynecologist Subspecialist Oncology?
Usually, obstetricians who specialize in oncology can be found on the advice or referrals of general practitioners or obstetrics and gynecology specialists who treat patients. The referral is based on the doctor's findings on the patient's condition which refers to the symptoms and signs of cancer.
However, if the patient is sure that the symptoms and diseases he or she is experiencing require treatment by an oncology subspecialist obstetrician or when the patient needs a second opinion to find out the disease he is experiencing, the patient can see an oncology subspecialist obstetrician directly.
You are advised to consult an oncology subspecialist obstetrician if you have complaints or symptoms that indicate a problem with the reproductive organs, such as:
- Bleeding through the vagina that is not normal, such as bleeding outside of menstruation, after sex, or after menopause
- Menstrual bleeding that is heavier and longer than usual
- Unusual vaginal discharge, such as vaginal discharge in large quantities or vaginal discharge that is different in color, smell, or texture than usual
- Complaints around the abdomen and pelvis, such as abdominal pain, bloating, constipation, and pelvic pain
- Complaints in the vaginal and vulvar area, such as itching, burning, pain, swelling, redness, or warts
- Unknown weight loss
A woman is also advised to consult an oncology subspecialist obstetrician if she has risk factors for the diseases mentioned above. The reason is, these diseases can appear without you knowing it if you have the following risk factors:
- Already menopause
- Over 50 years old
- Suffering from certain diseases, such as diabetes or high blood pressure
- Have or are suffering from certain types of cancer, such as breast cancer or colon cancer
- There are family members who have had cancer, including ovarian cancer and breast cancer
- Never been pregnant
Preparation for Consultation with Obstetrician Subspecialist Oncology
Before meeting with an oncology subspecialist obstetrician, it is recommended that you prepare the following things to make it easier for the doctor to determine the right treatment, such as:
- Prepare and bring a note of the questions you want to ask and a history of complaints or symptoms suffered.
- If available, please also bring the results of previous examinations, such as the results of blood tests, X-rays, CT scans, or biopsies.
- If you have been diagnosed with one of the diseases mentioned above, please inform your doctor about the severity of the disease you are suffering from.
- Take a family member to the oncology subspecialist obstetrician.
- Ask about the available treatment options and the success rate and risk of each treatment.
In addition to these preparations, you should also pay attention to the following things when choosing an oncology subspecialist obstetrician:
- Consider the location and distance of the hospital or doctor's office from home, considering that at any time your symptoms may require emergency medical treatment.
- You can ask for recommendations from several obstetricians who specialize in oncology, either from the doctor who examined you or from relatives. Make sure the doctor you choose is able to communicate well in explaining things related to the disease you are experiencing and the necessary treatment steps.
- Make sure the hospital where the doctor practices has complete facilities, as well as good and friendly service.
- If you want to take advantage of BPJS or your insurance, make sure the hospital is working with BPJS or your insurance provider.
The thing to remember, do not delay the time to check with a gynecologist oncology subspecialist if you experience complaints around the reproductive organs, even though they feel mild.
If detected early and treated quickly, the disease you are suffering from will be easier to treat and have a greater chance of healing.