The symptoms of TB disease are not only cough, but can vary depending on which part of the body is infected. Therefore, it is important to recognize the symptoms of TB disease as a whole, so that this disease can be anticipated as early as possible
Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis. These bacteria are spread through the air from person to person. So, when a person with TB coughs, sneezes, or spittles, those who are nearby may inhale the bacteria and become infected.
TB bacteria generally develop in the lungs, but these bacteria can also attack various other organs in the body, such as the lymph nodes, kidneys, spine, brain and nerves, joints and bones, through the bloodstream or the lymphatic system.. This condition is more common in people with weak immune systems.
Symptoms of TB Disease
TB bacteria that grow in the lungs can cause several symptoms of the disease, such as:
- Persistent cough that lasts longer (more than 2–3 weeks)
- Coughing up blood
- Chest pain when breathing or coughing
- Shortness of breath
In addition, the symptoms of TB disease can also be:
- Weight loss
- Fever and chills
- Sweats at night
- No appetite
When TB occurs outside the lungs, the signs and symptoms that occur can vary, according to the infected organ. The following are examples of symptoms of TB outside the lungs:
- Back pain in spinal tuberculosis
- Peeing blood in kidney tuberculosis
- Swollen lymph nodes when exposed to tuberculosis of the glands
- Stomach ache if you have intestinal tuberculosis
- Headaches and seizures when exposed to TB of the membranes of the brain
- bone and joint pain, so that you can't move, if the TB bacteria attacks the bones and joints
TB bacteria can attack anyone, especially in Indonesia, which is a TB endemic area. However, people with he althy immune systems are able to fight TB bacteria well, so the symptoms of TB disease do not appear even though the bacteria are in the body.This condition is known as latent TB.
Meanwhile, people with weak immune systems, such as people with HIV/AIDS, diabetes, severe kidney disease, or malnutrition, are more prone to developing active TB, which is a TB bacterial infection that causes various symptoms of TB disease as described above..
Efforts to Prevent Symptoms of TB Disease
The following are some ways to prevent the symptoms of TB disease:
1. BGC Vaccine
If you have never had TB disease and have never had the BCG vaccine as a child, you can get this vaccine to prevent TB. However, of course, after you consult with your doctor first.
2. He althy lifestyle
If you do not have any symptoms or have been declared cured of TB, always apply a he althy lifestyle to strengthen the immune system, so that the risk of TB disease recurrence decreases.
3. Antibiotics to prevent TB
If you are diagnosed with latent TB, you may be given anti-TB antibiotics for 9 months. Take all medicines regularly until the treatment period is over, so that the TB bacteria do not become active and infectious.
What if I Have Symptoms of TB Disease?
If you experience symptoms of TB disease or are diagnosed with active TB, you have a responsibility to prevent the spread of this disease. Limit your contact with other people and wear a surgical mask when you are around other people. Also, cover your mouth when you laugh, sneeze or cough.
Drinking antituberculosis drugs (OAT) on a regular basis can overcome the symptoms of TB disease. However, that doesn't mean you can stop taking this drug once your symptoms subside. Consumption of the drug must be continued to completion, according to the doctor's instructions.
Most cases of TB can be treated completely, especially if doctors detect the symptoms of TB disease early. If left untreated, this disease can lead to serious complications, such as permanent lung damage.
Therefore, immediately consult a doctor if you experience symptoms of TB disease as mentioned above, to get the right treatment.