Table of contents:
- Several Types of Gestational Trophoblastic Disease
- Some Signs and Symptoms of Gestational Trophoblastic Disease
- Diagnosis and Treatment of Gestational Trophoblastic
Gestational trophoblastic disease is a group of diseases that occur in abnormal pregnancies. This condition causes the embryo or future fetus to not form after fertilization. Gestational trophoblastic is generally harmless, but some types are malignant
Pregnancy begins with the fertilization of an egg by a sperm. After fertilization occurs, the egg and sperm will produce a group of trophoblast cells which will develop into an embryo or future fetus and form the placenta or placenta.
However, the trophoblast tissue can sometimes experience abnormalities, so that it cannot form a placenta and embryo. This condition is known as gestational trophoblastic disease (PTG). In certain cases, the trophoblast tissue can form abnormal tissue, such as a tumor or cyst.
Several Types of Gestational Trophoblastic Disease
Several types of diseases classified as gestational trophoblastic diseases are:
Pregnancy with grapes or hydatidiform mole is the most common form of gestational trophoblastic. In the case of grape pregnancy, the fertilized egg does not develop into a placenta or a fetus, but rather a collection of cysts that cluster and look like grapes.
The condition of pregnant wine is divided into 2 types, namely complete and partial pregnancy. In full-term pregnancy, all placental tissue grows abnormally, swells, and forms fluid-filled cysts. In addition, the fetus is also not formed.
In partial pregnancy, there are placental tissues that grow normally, but some are abnormal and form cysts. The possibility of the fetus to form is still there, but usually the fetus is not able to survive and will abort in early pregnancy.
Cysts that form during pregnancy are generally benign, but these cysts can sometimes develop into cancer. There are several factors that can increase a woman's risk of developing cancer due to pregnancy, namely:
- Under 20 years old or above 35 years old when pregnant
- The presence of an ovarian cyst with a size of more than 6 cm or a large tumor in the uterus
- History of miscarriage or have had a previous miscarriage
- High blood pressure during pregnancy
- There are complaints of severe nausea and vomiting during pregnancy
- Hyperthyroidism or overactive thyroid gland
- HCG hormone levels are too high
Trophoblastic gestational neoplasia
Trophoblastic gestational neoplasia is a condition when the cyst tissue that forms during pregnancy develops into a tumor or cancer. There are several types of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia, including:
1. Invasive mole
Invasive mole usually starts from a case of complete pregnancy, which then develops into cancer and attacks the lining of the uterus. In certain cases, this abnormal tissue can spread to other organs and damage them.
Kariocarcinoma is a rare type of cancer that also starts in pregnancy. However, this cancerous tissue can sometimes form from tissue left in the uterus after abortion, miscarriage, ectopic pregnancy, and even from normal delivery.
3. PSTT (placental site trophoblastic tumor)
PSTT is also classified as a rare type of tumor. This tumor tissue is formed from trophoblastic cells that spread to the uterine muscles and blood vessels. PSTT can also spread to the lungs, pelvis, and lymph nodes.
PSTT generally grows very slowly. A woman can only experience this condition within a few months or several years after experiencing a miscarriage.
4. ETT or epithelioid trophoblastic tumor
ETT is a very rare type of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia. Some of these tumors are benign, but some are malignant. A cancerous ETT can spread to the lungs.
There are several factors that can increase a woman's risk of developing gestational trophoblastic tumors or cancer, including:
- History of previous pregnancies or currently pregnant
- You are less than 20 years old or more than 35 years old when pregnant
- Previous history of pregnancy with wine
- There is a family history of cancer or gestational trophoblastic tumor
Some Signs and Symptoms of Gestational Trophoblastic Disease
Most women who suffer from PTG will experience preeclampsia. In addition, women suffering from PTG may also experience the following signs and symptoms:
- Pain and pressure and discomfort in the pelvic area
- Bleeding from the vagina outside the menstrual cycle
- Continuous and abnormal vaginal bleeding after delivery
- Shortness of breath and heaviness
- Tired quickly
- Enlargement of the uterus that is faster than gestational age
- Severe nausea and vomiting during pregnancy
Please note, the symptoms listed above do not absolutely indicate a PTG condition. Therefore, the only way to determine whether the symptoms you are experiencing are PTG symptoms or not is to see a doctor. This condition can be diagnosed by obstetricians, including obstetricians who specialize in gynecology oncology.
Diagnosis and Treatment of Gestational Trophoblastic
To diagnose PTG, the doctor will perform a series of examinations consisting of a physical examination, including an internal pelvic examination, and supporting examinations including Pap smears and blood and urine tests.
Radiological examinations, such as transvaginal ultrasound, X-ray, CT Scan, or MRI, are also performed to diagnose PTG.
If the results of the doctor's examination show that you have PTG which is benign or only pregnant with grapes, the doctor will perform a curettage.
However, if your PTG is suspected to be cancerous or has the potential to become a tumor or cancer, your doctor can treat the condition by administering chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and surgery, such as a hysterectomy.
Gestational trophoblastic condition is generally harmless, but it can sometimes develop into cancer. Therefore, do not hesitate to consult a doctor if you experience symptoms that suggest gestational trophoblastic so that this condition can be treated properly.