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The urinary system is an organ system that functions to filter and remove waste substances by producing urine. If the function of this system is disturbed, waste and toxins can accumulate in the body and cause various he alth problems
The urinary system or urinary tract consists of the kidneys, bladder, ureters, and also the urethra (urinary tract). Each part of the urinary system has its own function and role. Through the urinary tract, urine that carries waste and toxins will be removed from the body.
Parts of the Urinary System and Their Functions
Urine is liquid waste consisting of water, s alt, and waste substances from the body's metabolism, such as urea and uric acid. For normal urination or urination, all parts of the urinary system need to work properly.
The following are the organs belonging to the urinary system and their functions:
The human body has a pair of kidneys located in the left and right back areas, just below the back ribs. Each kidney is the size of an adult fist and is shaped like a bean.
The main function of the kidneys is to regulate the amount of water in the blood, filter waste substances or the rest of the body's metabolism, produce hormones that function to control blood pressure and red blood cell production, and regulate the pH or acidity of the blood.
The ureter is the part of the urinary system that is shaped like a pipe or tube. Ureter serves to drain urine from each kidney to be accommodated in the bladder.
This organ in the lower abdomen is in charge of storing urine. If the bladder is filled with urine, there will be an urge to urinate. The adult bladder is capable of holding up to 300–500 ml of urine.
Urethra or urinary tract is the channel that connects the bladder to the urinary tract opening at the tip of the penis or vagina.
The urethra in men is about 20 cm long, while the urethra in women is only about 4 cm. In the part between the bladder and urethra there is a ring of muscle or sphincter that is in charge of keeping urine from leaking.
Various Diseases of the Urinary System
Disorders in the urinary system can be detected from changes in urine color. He althy and normal urine is generally clear, yellowish, to golden yellow in color. The color of the urine comes from a substance called urochrome. However, the consumption of certain foods and medications can sometimes change the color of urine.
A problem with the urinary system or urinary tract is not only marked by a change in the color of the urine. The following are some problems or diseases that can occur in the urinary system:
1. Urinary tract infection
A urinary tract infection (UTI) is an infection that occurs in any part of the urinary system, from the kidneys to the urinary tract. Women are at greater risk of developing UTIs than men. This is because the distance between the urinary tract and the anus in women is closer.
2. Urinary stones
Urinary tract stones (urolithiasis) is a condition when stones form in the urinary system, such as kidney stones, ureter stones, or bladder stones.Stone sizes generally vary. The larger the size of the stone formed, the greater the risk of the stone blocking the flow of urine and causing disease.
3. Urinary incontinence
Urine incontinence is a condition when the function of muscles or nerves in the bladder and urinary tract is impaired, so that it cannot control the process of urination.
This disease can make you suddenly wet the bed, especially when you cough or sneeze. Urinary incontinence often occurs in the elderly, but it is possible for younger people to also experience it.
Urethritis is inflammation of the urethra. This condition is often caused by a bacterial infection in the urinary tract. Urethritis can cause pain and an urge to urinate more often.
5. Nephrotic syndrome
Nephrotic syndrome is a kidney disorder that causes protein levels in the urine to increase.This condition is usually caused by damage to the small blood vessels in the kidneys that function to filter waste and excess water from the blood. Nephrotic syndrome can be caused by various things, such as a history of infection and inflammation.
Nephrotic syndrome can cause symptoms such as foamy urine, fatigue, loss of appetite, and swelling of the legs, face, and various parts of the body, such as the face and around the eyes.
6. nephritic syndrome
Nephritic syndrome is swelling or inflammation of the kidneys. This condition can cause pelvic pain, more frequent and painful urination, cloudy or reddish urine, back or stomach pain, and swelling of the face and legs. If not treated promptly, nephritic syndrome can lead to kidney failure.
7. Kidney failure
Kidney failure occurs when the kidneys are unable to filter the blood and remove fluids and waste substances from the body.
Kidney damage that causes kidney failure can be caused by various things, ranging from side effects of drugs, serious injury to the kidneys, dehydration, to certain diseases, such as hypertension and chronic diabetes that are not handled properly.
When experiencing kidney failure, a person will experience several symptoms such as reduced amount of urine, not urinating at all for days, swelling in the legs, shortness of breath, weakness, to pale.
If you experience problems with the urinary system, especially if accompanied by complaints such as fever, very severe low back or back pain, pain when urinating, and blood or pus in the urine, immediately consult a urologist to get the right treatment..
Proper diagnosis and treatment will prevent damage to the urinary system, so that the condition can be treated properly. This is important to do to prevent further complications due to severe damage to the urinary system.