Knowing the Kinds of Pneumonia

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Knowing the Kinds of Pneumonia
Knowing the Kinds of Pneumonia

There are several types of pneumonia that can be distinguished based on the microorganism that causes it and the place where the infection occurs. Pneumonia itself is a lung infection disease that can cause the air sacs in the lungs to fill with fluid or pus.

The lungs are made up of many small air sacs called alveoli. When pneumonia occurs, where the lungs are infected by certain microorganisms, the alveoli that should be filled with air can become filled with fluid or pus.

Know the Kinds of Pneumonia - Alodokter

This causes the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the alveoli to not run smoothly, causing shortness of breath, coughing up phlegm, chest pain, and even fever.

Types of Pneumonia Based on the Cause

Based on the microorganisms that cause infection, pneumonia can be divided into several types, namely:

1. Bacterial pneumonia

Bacterial pneumonia is pneumonia due to a bacterial infection. This is the most common type of pneumonia, and the bacteria that most commonly causes lung infections is Streptococcus pneumoniae.

You can catch pneumonia-causing bacteria when you inhale the droplets (small saliva droplets) that a person with pneumonia releases when he coughs or sneezes. Infection can occur more easily if you have a weak immune system, have a history of lung disease, smoke frequently, or are recovering from hospital surgery.

2. Atypical pneumonia

This type of pneumonia is actually still caused by bacteria, but the symptoms are milder than bacterial pneumonia. Because the symptoms of pneumonia are mild, sufferers usually do not realize that they are sick. This condition is known as walking pneumonia. Atypical pneumonia is usually caused by the bacteria Mycoplasma pneumoniae or Chlamydophila pneumoniae.

3. viral pneumonia

Various types of viruses can infect the lungs and cause this type of pneumonia. Viral pneumonia usually lasts less than bacterial pneumonia and the symptoms are milder.

However, sometimes cases of viral pneumonia can also be fatal, especially if the cause is the influenza virus. Children, the elderly (elderly), and people who have weak immune systems are more at risk for experiencing the fatal viral pneumonia.

4. Fungal pneumonia

This type of pneumonia is caused by a fungal infection. Fungal pneumonia is rare and is usually experienced by people who suffer from chronic diseases or have a weak immune system. Examples are people with AIDS, cancer patients who are undergoing chemotherapy, people with autoimmune diseases, or organ transplant recipients who must take drugs that suppress the body's immune system (immunosuppressants).

Types of Pneumonia Based on the Place of Infection

Microorganisms that cause pneumonia can be obtained from various places. Pneumonia obtained from different places has different characteristics.

1. Hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP)

Pneumonia that is acquired while a person is being treated in a hospital is known as hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) or nosocomial pneumonia. The reason for hospitalization does not have to be pulmonary disease.All patients who are being hospitalized for any disease are at risk of being exposed to bacteria while in the hospital.

HAP is usually serious because the bacteria that cause it are often resistant to antibiotics. A patient who is hospitalized is more at risk for this type of pneumonia if:

  • Requires a ventilator breath during treatment
  • Can't cough normally, so phlegm in the lungs and throat can't be expelled
  • Has a tracheostomy, which is an artificial hole in the neck that has been fitted with a tube to help breathing
  • Has a weak immune system

2. He alth care-acquired pneumonia

Unlike HAP that occurs in hospitals, he alth care-acquired pneumonia can occur in other he alth facilities, such as hemodialysis centers or outpatient clinics.Bacteria obtained from these places can also be resistant to antibiotics.

3. Community -acquired pneumonia (CAP)

Pneumonia of this type includes all pneumonia acquired outside of hospitals and he alth facilities. Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) can be caused by bacteria, viruses, or fungi. One example of CAP is pulmonary tuberculosis (pulmonary TB).

This type of pneumonia also includes aspiration pneumonia, which is a type of pneumonia that occurs when a person accidentally inhales food, drink, or vomit into his airways. This condition usually occurs in people who have difficulty swallowing and vomiting.

Not all cases of pneumonia are fatal. Mild pneumonia can usually be treated at home using medications as directed by your doctor. However, severe pneumonia requires intensive care in the hospital because it can end up in respiratory failure or sepsis.

If you experience symptoms of pneumonia, such as shortness of breath, cough, and fever, immediately consult a doctor. If it turns out that you have pneumonia, the doctor will determine the right treatment according to the type of pneumonia you have.

To prevent pneumonia, you are advised to always maintain your immune system by exercising regularly, eating nutritious foods, and not smoking. Don't forget to regularly wash your hands thoroughly, especially before touching the face area, and get a vaccine for pneumonia if necessary.

Written by:

dr. Irene Cindy Sunur

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