Types of Knee Injuries and Treatment Steps

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Types of Knee Injuries and Treatment Steps
Types of Knee Injuries and Treatment Steps

Knee injuries can occur anytime and anywhere, either due to falls or certain medical conditions. This condition can make it difficult for the sufferer to walk, thus hampering daily activities. Therefore, a quick and appropriate treatment is needed

The knee is one of the shafts of body movement as well as playing an important role in supporting body weight. It is unimaginable when the knee is injured and its function is impaired. Of course it is very torturous for anyone who experiences it.

Types of Knee Injuries and Treatment Steps - Alodokter

Knee injuries generally occur during sports, but can also be caused by certain medical conditions that are influenced by age. Treatment for knee injuries also depends on the location and severity of the knee injury.

What Happens When You Have a Knee Injury?

An injured knee can cause pain, bruising, or swelling. These three things can appear minutes after someone has suffered a knee injury.

Pinched nerve tissue, displacement or fracture of the knee bones, to tears in the veins in the knee, are common conditions that cause pain.

Knee injuries that occur suddenly or are called acute injuries, can be caused by a direct impact on the knee, either when falling or being hit by a hard object.

What are the Types of Knee Injuries?

The knee is made up of a complex structure, including bone, muscle, and ligamentous tissue. Based on the tissue that is damaged, knee injuries are divided into several types, including:

1. Sprain

A sprain is an injury to the ligaments of the knee. Ligaments are connective tissue that serves to unite all parts of the knee. Based on the level of ligament damage, knee injuries due to sprains are divided into three types, namely.

  • Grade 1 sprain: The ligaments inside the knee are stretched and cause pain. However, the knee is still stable and there are no tears in the ligaments.
  • Grade 2 sprain: There is instability in the knee, due to some of the ligament fibers being torn
  • Grade 3 sprain: There is a severe tear in the ligament.

2. Bursitis

Another type of knee injury is bursitis, which is inflammation due to irritation or infection of the fluid-filled sac called the bursa.

The bursa itself acts as a pressure absorber to minimize friction between the tissues that make up the knee, such as the muscles and tendons around the joint. There are two bursae in the knee, one above the kneecap and at the end of the shinbone or tibia.

3. Meniscal damage (meniscal tears)

Meniscus is a crescent-shaped disc of cartilage that has a function to reduce friction.

Apart from being a damper, this section also functions as a soft cushion for the thigh bone or femur. This type of knee injury can occur due to strenuous activity or as a natural process with age.

4. Knee muscles tense

Strain in the knee occurs when the muscles and tendons around the knee are injured by bending too deeply or stretching too wide. In addition to causing excruciating pain, this condition can also cause impaired function and flexibility of the knee.

5. Kneecap dislocation

The kneecap or patella can move to the side of the knee. This condition is often caused by injuries from accidents or sports.

Although it can cause severe pain, a kneecap dislocation is not life threatening. To overcome this, you can consult a doctor and do physiotherapy.

6. Joint dislocation

Joint displacement or dislocation can occur, especially when the knee is subjected to a strong impact. These collisions can occur when you are doing sports or when you have an accident.

This type of knee injury is known to cause severe damage to all the components that make up the knee. Damage can also affect the nervous system and blood vessels of the knee.

7. Knee fracture

Fractures or fractures of the knee are usually caused by a direct blow to the knee bone. For example, falling with the knee position first. Fractures can also occur in the shinbone due to sudden pressure on the knee, especially in people with osteoporosis.

Other injuries that can affect the knee are patellofemoral pain syndrome or commonly known as runner's knee disease and cho ndromala c ia patella.

The cause of these two types of knee disorders is repeated damage to the knee structure based on genetic factors or incorrect movement during activities.

How to Treat Knee Injury?

If you have a minor knee injury, there are several things you can do as a first step in treatment, namely:

  • Immediately stop the physical activity that is being undertaken and rest the injured knee
  • Cold knee compress using ice water for 20 minutes to reduce pain and swelling.
  • Lie down with your knees higher than your body.
  • Use a bandage on the injured knee so it doesn't shake too much.

If the injury you experience is severe and doesn't heal, don't hesitate to get your knee checked by a doctor. The doctor will suggest several treatments according to your condition, such as:


This treatment procedure is done by removing a portion of the meniscus cartilage found in the knee joint. The meniscus is a piece of cartilage that serves to absorb shocks between the ends of the bones.

Meniscus transplant

The transplant process is done for the condition of the meniscus which is completely damaged and can no longer be repaired. Meniscus usually comes from a deceased donor to be given to people in need.


Microfacture is a surgical procedure performed to treat areas of cartilage damage within the knee joint. This procedure will stimulate the body to form new cartilage or cartilage on the knee.


This method aims to improve the mobility and strength of the injured knee. This method is also used to reduce aches and pains from injuries.

Knee injuries can happen to anyone and at any time. To reduce the risk of injury, don't carry things or put too much weight on your knees, warm up before exercising, and wear comfortable footwear every time you do your activities.

If your knee injury doesn't heal or it causes excruciating pain and makes you unable to walk, see a doctor immediately so that proper treatment can be done.

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