Sterilization, Here's What You Should Know

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Sterilization, Here's What You Should Know
Sterilization, Here's What You Should Know
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Sterilization is a permanent method of contraception that aims to prevent a person from having children. This procedure can be performed on both men and women. In men, sterilization is done by vasectomy. While in women, sterilization is done by tubal ligation

Vasectomy is done by cutting and closing the sperm ducts. This action prevents the sperm from mixing with the semen, so the semen cannot fertilize the egg.

Sterilization, Here's What You Should Know - Alodokter

While in tubal ligation, the fallopian tubes, namely the tubes that connect the ovaries and uterus, are tied or closed. This will prevent the sperm from meeting the egg and fertilizing it.

The success rate of sterilization in preventing pregnancy is almost 100 percent. In one study, only 2 to 30 women out of every 1,000 women were known to still be able to get pregnant after undergoing sterilization.

Sterilization does not affect a person's hormone levels, sex drive and ability to have sex. Before going into further discussion, please note that this article will only discuss female sterilization or tubal ligation.

Sterilization Indication

Sterilization is performed on women who decide they don't want to have children or want to stop having children. Before deciding to undergo sterilization, it is important to first consult with a doctor, considering that the effects of sterilization are permanent.

Generally, doctors perform sterilization on women aged 30 years and over and already have children. In patients outside of these two conditions, the doctor will suggest another type of contraception. This is done so that the patient does not regret in the future.

Warning Before Undergoing Sterilization

There are several things that patients who wish to undergo sterilization should know, namely:

  • Sterilization cannot prevent sexually transmitted infections. Therefore, keep having sex in a safe way.
  • Although it is considered permanent, it is still possible to return a tubal ligation or reopen the fallopian tubes so that you can get pregnant again. However, the success rate is very small.
  • The risk of complications due to sterilization will be greater in patients with diabetes, overweight (obesity), and patients with a history of abdominal or pelvic surgery.

Before Sterilization Procedure

For patients who want to undergo a sterilization procedure, discuss it with their partner first because there are many other contraceptive options. After that, also consult with your doctor whether sterilization is the right choice, considering the effects are permanent.

In the consultation session, the doctor will ask the patient the reason for the sterilization to ensure that there are no regrets in the future. The doctor will also explain the benefits and risks of sterilization, the stages of the sterilization procedure, the possibility of failure, and the right time to undergo surgery.

Sterilization can be done shortly after delivery or at the same time as a cesarean section. In patients who want to undergo sterilization outside of these two conditions, doctors will usually recommend the use of contraception 1 month before sterilization until the procedure is complete.

Before undergoing sterilization, the patient will be told to do the following things:

  • Stop eating, drinking and smoking the night before surgery.
  • If you use nail polish, remove it before undergoing surgery.
  • Don't forget to bring a sanitary napkin. Vaginal bleeding may occur after surgery.
  • Don't wear high heels on the day the surgery will be performed. The effects of the anesthetic can cause dizziness when walking.
  • Take off all jewelry that was worn before undergoing sterilization.
  • Wear loose clothing to avoid discomfort after surgery.

Sterilization Procedure

Sterilization in women aims to prevent sperm from fertilizing the egg. The following are the stages of the procedure for sterilization or tubal ligation in women:

  • The patient will be first anesthetized with general anesthesia to fall asleep, so that the patient does not feel anything during the operation.
  • The obstetrician will make a small incision around the navel, then the patient's stomach will be filled with carbon dioxide gas to make it bulge. If a tubal ligation is performed after a cesarean section, the doctor will use the incision made to carry out the next step.
  • After the patient's stomach bulges, the doctor will insert a laparoscope, which is a small instrument equipped with a camera and light, to reach the patient's reproductive organs.
  • The doctor will then close the fallopian tube by cutting, folding, or clamping it using special rings or clamps.
  • The doctor will usually make another incision to insert a special tool such as a clamp that is used to close the fallopian tube.

After Sterilization Procedure

After the sterilization is complete, the doctor will monitor the patient's condition every 15 minutes to 1 hour. If there are no complications, the patient can go home a few hours later.

The sterilization recovery process generally takes 2–5 days. The doctor will ask the patient for control a week after the operation. It is important to remember that contraception must be used until the next menstrual cycle or until 3 months after surgery.

To help the recovery process, the doctor will give a number of suggestions that the patient should do, namely:

  • Do not consume alcohol and drive a vehicle within 24 hours after surgery.
  • The bandage can be removed the next day after surgery, while bathing is only allowed 2 days after surgery. Do not scratch the incision area, and always dry the area carefully after every shower.
  • Don't have sex and lift heavy objects until the doctor permits.
  • Conduct normal activities gradually if your condition feels better.

Immediately consult a doctor if you do not recover completely or symptoms appear, such as:

  • Fever of 38 degrees Celsius or above
  • stomach pain that keeps getting worse up to 12 hours after surgery
  • Incision wound smells bad
  • Bleeding in the incision wound

Sterilization Complications

Sterilization procedures that are performed imperfectly run the risk of causing a pregnancy outside the uterus or an ectopic pregnancy. This condition is very dangerous because it can cause death, both for the mother and the fetus.

Sterilization can also cause some complications, such as:

  • Allergic reaction due to anesthetic
  • Pain in abdomen and pelvis that lasts continuously
  • Damage to the intestines, bladder, and blood vessels
  • Wounds due to incisions are difficult to heal or become infected

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