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Vomiting blood during pregnancy can be caused by various things. This condition needs to be treated immediately because it poses a risk of harm to pregnant women and fetuses. Therefore, it is important to know the various causes of vomiting blood during pregnancy so that treatment can be carried out and pregnant women avoid the risk of complications
Nausea and vomiting are common complaints experienced by every pregnant woman, especially during the first trimester of pregnancy. This condition is known as morning sickness and is generally caused by hormonal changes during pregnancy.
Some pregnant women who experience morning sickness only experience mild complaints and can still eat and drink regularly.
However, this condition needs to be watched out for if it feels severe enough, occurs most of the day, makes pregnant women lose weight, and causes complaints of vomiting blood, body weakness, and dehydration.
These various symptoms can be a sign of hyperemesis gravidarum that needs to be treated immediately.
Causes of Vomiting Blood During Pregnancy
In general, blood spots that come out with vomiting come from upper gastrointestinal bleeding, namely the stomach or esophagus. The following are some medical conditions or diseases that can cause vomiting of blood during pregnancy:
1. Mallory-Weiss Syndrome
Mallory-Weiss syndrome is bleeding in the esophagus that occurs due to injury to the wall of the esophagus. This syndrome is often caused by excessive vomiting.
Therefore, excessive vomiting or vomiting that occurs throughout the day in pregnant women can cause injury to the wall of the esophagus, causing complaints of vomiting blood.
In addition to excessive vomiting, Mallory-Weiss syndrome can also sometimes be caused by chronic coughing or hiccups that don't go away. Not only in pregnant women, Mallory-Weiss syndrome can also occur in children and adolescents or people who have bulimia.
2. Rupture of esophageal varices (esophageal varices)
Varicose veins in the esophagus is a condition where the blood vessels in the esophagus or esophagus widen. This condition occurs because blood flow to the liver is blocked by scar tissue and causes increased pressure in the blood vessels around the liver.
Blood vessels tend to be fragile and break easily. If pregnant women experience varicose veins in the esophagus and the varicose veins rupture, this condition can cause vomiting of blood in large quantities and endanger the condition of pregnant women.
3. Stomach acid disease
Vomiting blood during pregnancy can be caused by acid reflux disease or GERD. Hormonal changes during pregnancy make the muscles of the lower esophagus weaken.
The esophageal muscle should contract and close the channel between the esophagus and the stomach after the food has descended into the stomach. Weakening of this muscle keeps the esophagus open, allowing stomach acid to back up into the esophagus.
The symptom of stomach acid disease is heartburn or pain in the chest. In certain cases, GERD can also cause vomiting of blood.
4. Inflammation of the stomach (gastritis)
Inflammation of the stomach lining or gastritis during pregnancy can also cause vomiting of blood. Gastritis can last for a long time and if not treated immediately, this condition can potentially lead to gastric cancer.
There are various things that can cause gastritis, including infection with H. pylori bacteria, severe stress, smoking and consuming alcoholic beverages, as well as side effects of drugs, such as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).
In addition to vomiting blood, gastritis can also cause other symptoms such as upper abdominal pain, flatulence, nausea, vomiting, and loss of appetite.
5. Severe morning sickness
Vomiting blood during pregnancy can also be caused by morning sickness or prolonged and severe nausea and vomiting. Vomiting that occurs continuously can cause injury to the lining of the esophagus, resulting in bleeding.
6. Stomach ulcer
Peptic ulcer is a condition when there is an injury to the stomach wall due to erosion of the lining of the stomach wall. These sores also have the potential to appear on the wall of the duodenum or duodenum and esophagus.
Peptic ulcers will often cause complaints of pain or tenderness in the stomach. In severe cases, peptic ulcers can cause vomiting of blood. This condition often occurs due to stomach ulcers that are not treated properly.
In addition to the above conditions, vomiting blood in pregnant women can also be caused by other causes, such as swallowed nosebleed blood, esophageal cancer, leukemia, or blood clotting disorders, such as hemophilia.
Whatever the cause, complaints of vomiting blood during pregnancy is something that should not be taken lightly because it can endanger the lives of pregnant women and fetuses. Therefore, if pregnant women experience vomiting blood, immediately consult a doctor so that treatment can be carried out immediately and pregnant women avoid complications during pregnancy.