Cystoscopy, Here's What You Should Know

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Cystoscopy, Here's What You Should Know
Cystoscopy, Here's What You Should Know
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Cystoscopy is a procedure to examine the condition of the urinary tract and bladder. Cystoscopy can also be performed to examine and assist in the treatment of patients with bladder stones or bladder cancer

Cystoscopy is performed using a cystoscope, which is a small tube-shaped instrument equipped with a light and camera at the end. The camera will take pictures of the patient's urinary tract (urethra) and bladder to display on the monitor screen.

Cystoscopy, Here's What You Should Know - Alodokter

There are two types of cystoscopes that can be used in cystoscopy, namely flexible cystoscopes and rigid cystoscopes. The flexible cystoscope is only used to observe the patient's urinary tract, while the rigid cystoscope is used to assist the treatment of diseases in the urinary tract.

Indications of Cystoscopy

Usually, the doctor will perform a cystoscopy to:

  • Find out the cause of recurrent urinary tract infections
  • Checking for the cause of uncontrolled urination, pain when urinating, or the presence of blood in the urine
  • Diagnosing bladder stones, prostate enlargement, bladder inflammation (cystitis), and bladder cancer
  • Helps in the treatment of bladder stones or tumors, urethral stricture (urethral stricture), and overactive bladder

Cystoscopy Alert

The following are some things to know before undergoing a cystoscopy:

  • Cystoscopy is not performed on patients who are suffering from urinary tract infections.
  • Patients may experience some discomfort when urinating after the cystoscopy, but this will usually go away within a few days.
  • Some drugs can cause heavy bleeding during cystoscopy. Therefore, tell your doctor if you are taking certain medications.
  • In patients who are under local anesthesia, pain and the urge to urinate will appear when the cystoscope is inserted.

Before Cystoscopy

Before undergoing a cystoscopy, there are several things the patient should know, including:

  • The doctor will examine the patient's urine sample to determine if the patient is suffering from a urinary tract infection. The cystoscopy procedure will be postponed if the patient is diagnosed with the condition.
  • In patients who suffer from urinary tract infections or have weak immune systems, the doctor will prescribe antibiotics before and after the cystoscopy.
  • For patients who will undergo cystoscopy under general anesthesia, it is recommended to invite family members to accompany before and after the cystoscopy.
  • Patients will be asked to fast a few hours before the cystoscopy.

Cystoscopy Procedure

Before the procedure begins, the patient will be asked to change into special clothes that have been prepared by the doctor. The following are the steps in the cystoscopy procedure:

  • The doctor will ask the patient to lie down on the operating table with the legs bent and wide apart.
  • The doctor will give a local anesthetic that keeps the patient awake during the procedure, or a general anesthetic that puts the patient to sleep during the procedure. In patients who are given local anesthesia, the doctor will also give a sedative to relax the patient during the cystoscopy procedure.
  • The doctor will clean the patient's genital area using antiseptic and apply gel to the urinary opening to reduce pain during the process of inserting the cystoscope.
  • The doctor will slowly insert the cystoscope into the lower urinary tract called the urethra. The camera attached to the cystoscope will send images to the monitor screen, so the doctor can see the condition of the urethra and bladder.
  • If needed, the doctor will insert a sterile fluid into the bladder, so that the resulting image becomes clearer. If this process is performed, the patient may experience an uncomfortable sensation or the urge to urinate.
  • The doctor will insert a large, rigid cystoscope when taking tissue samples from the urethra or bladder. This act of taking a tissue sample is called a biopsy.

The length of the cystoscopy procedure depends on the type of anesthesia used. Cystoscopy using local anesthesia usually lasts less than 5 minutes, whereas cystoscopy under general anesthesia can take anywhere from 15-30 minutes.

After Cystoscopy

The doctor can immediately notify the results of the cystoscopy examination after the examination is complete. However, if the patient also undergoes a biopsy at the time of cystoscopy, the results of the examination may only be notified by the doctor 2-3 weeks later.

The normal cystoscopy results showed that there were no problems with the shape, size, and position of the bladder. On the other hand, abnormal cystoscopy results can indicate he alth problems such as the following:

  • bladder stones
  • cyst in bladder
  • Bladder Cancer
  • Disorders of the prostate gland
  • Inflammation of the urethra (urethritis)
  • Inflammation of the bladder (cystitis)
  • Narrowing of the urinary tract (urethral stricture)
  • Foreign body in urethra or bladder
  • Birth defects of the urinary system

Patients who undergo cystoscopy under local anesthesia can return to their normal activities. However, patients who receive general anesthesia must rest first until the effects of the anesthetic wear off and need to be taken home by family or relatives.

After undergoing a cystoscopy, the patient will generally experience pain when urinating. To relieve it, the patient can apply a warm compress to the pubic area. If needed, the doctor can prescribe pain relievers, such as paracetamol or ibuprofen.

Patients are also advised to drink a lot to urinate more often, so that irritation in the bladder is reduced.

Cystoscopy Risks

Cystoscopy is a safe procedure. However, in some cases, cystoscopy has the risk of causing the following side effects:

  • Infection due to the entry of bacteria into the urinary tract, especially in elderly patients and smokers
  • Stomach pain and burning sensation when urinating, but usually mild and will subside gradually
  • There is a small amount of blood in the urine, especially in patients undergoing a biopsy during cystoscopy

Immediately go to the nearest hospital emergency room if the following complaints appear after undergoing a cystoscopy:

  • Fever
  • Shiver
  • Nausea
  • Unbearable stomach pain
  • Difficult or unable to urinate
  • Pain when urinating that doesn't go away until 2 days after cystoscopy
  • Urine is light red or dark in color

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