Diphtheria Vaccination, Here's What You Should Know

Table of contents:

Diphtheria Vaccination, Here's What You Should Know
Diphtheria Vaccination, Here's What You Should Know
Anonim

Diphtheria vaccination is a vaccination that is carried out to prevent diphtheria, which is an infectious disease that can cause shortness of breath, pneumonia, nerve damage, heart problems, and even death. This disease can be suffered by both children and adults

Diphtheria vaccination is included in the list of complete basic immunization national programs in Indonesia and recommended by the Ministry of He alth and the Indonesian Pediatrician Association (IDAI).

Diphtheria Vaccination, Here's What You Should Know - Alodokter

Diphtheria vaccine is available in combination with other disease vaccines, namely with tetanus and whooping cough (pertussis), or with tetanus alone.

There are five types of diphtheria vaccination available, namely:

  • DTP vaccinationDTP vaccine is given to children under 7 years old to prevent diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis.

  • DTaP VaccinationThe benefits are the same as DTP, but the pertussis vaccine is modified so that it is expected to reduce the side effects of the vaccine.

  • DT vaccineDT vaccine is given to children under 7 years old to prevent diphtheria and tetanus.

  • Tdap vaccineTdap vaccine is given to children and adults, ages 11–64 years, to prevent tetanus, diphtheria and whooping cough.

  • Td vaccineTd vaccine is given to adolescents and adults to prevent tetanus and diphtheria. This vaccination should be repeated every 10 years.

Indications for Diphtheria Vaccination

As previously explained, this vaccination is done to prevent diphtheria, which is a disease caused by infection with Corynebacterium diphtheria bacteria. That way, the risk of a diphtheria outbreak can be reduced. This vaccination needs to be done from infancy to adulthood.

Diphtheria Vaccination Time

The recommended diphtheria vaccination time for the Indonesian Pediatric Association (IDAI) is:

  • The first diphtheria vaccination, either DTP or DtaP, is given at the age of 2 months or at the earliest at the age of 6 weeks. Furthermore, for the DTP vaccine, it is given at the age of 3 months and 4 months. While those who received the DTaP vaccine, the second and third vaccines were given at the age of 4 months and 6 months.
  • Boost doses can be given at 18 months and 5 years.
  • Children who have entered the age of 7 years and over will be given a booster dose with the Tdap or Td vaccine. The 6th dose can be given at the age of 10–12 years.
  • The next booster dose is given at the age of 18 with the Td vaccine, and is repeated every 10 years.

If you are late for the vaccination schedule above, your child needs to get a catch-up vaccination immediately according to the doctor's advice.

Diphtheria vaccine is also recommended for people who will travel to areas experiencing diphtheria outbreaks and have not received a diphtheria booster for the past 10 years.

Diphtheria Vaccine Warning

There are several things you need to know before undergoing diphtheria vaccination, namely:

  • Tell the doctor if you or your child has an allergy to any component of the vaccine.
  • Tell the doctor if you or your child are taking any medicines, herbal products, or vitamins, especially drugs that weaken the immune system, such as cancer drugs, steroid drugs, and radiation therapy.
  • Tell your doctor if you have a history of Guillain-Barre syndrome, seizures or other neurological disorders, bleeding disorders, immunodeficiency disorders, and side effects from previous diphtheria vaccines.If you are sick, the doctor may delay giving the vaccine.
  • Take regular check-ups with your doctor to make sure the vaccine is working properly and doesn't cause any side effects. An examination to the doctor also needs to be done to prepare the schedule for the next vaccine.
  • For pregnant or lactating women, you should first consult with your obstetrician regarding the vaccine plan to be carried out during pregnancy or breastfeeding. Diphtheria vaccine boosters should be given to pregnant women in the last trimester, or those who have never received the Tdap vaccine or do not know about it.
  • The Tdap vaccine may be given to pregnant or breastfeeding women to protect the baby from pertussis, but keep in mind the previous schedule for the diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis vaccines.

Before Diphtheria Vaccination

The doctor will do a general physical examination before giving the diphtheria vaccination. To avoid allergic reactions after vaccination, doctors can also perform allergy tests first, especially in children who do have a history of allergies.

Diphtheria Vaccination Procedure

The procedure for diphtheria vaccination will be done by injection into the muscle. If there are other vaccinations to be given, the doctor will administer the injection at a different location.

Usually, doctors will inject diphtheria vaccine into children in the thigh. For adolescents and adults, the vaccine will be injected in the upper arm.

It is recommended to make sure the vaccination liquid is in good condition, which is white or gray after shaking. Do not use expired vaccination fluids.

After Diphtheria Vaccination

Some people may experience complaints that are felt after vaccination, in the form of dizziness, blurred vision, ringing in the ears, to fainting. Condition monitoring can be done to prevent or treat fainting.

For children, fever or swelling may occur after the vaccine is given. Therefore, doctors will generally prescribe fever-reducing drugs after vaccination.

Although rare, some vaccination recipients experience severe pain in the shoulder and find it difficult to move. Allergic reactions can occur within minutes or hours after vaccination. See a doctor immediately if this happens so that it can be treated as soon as possible.

Immunization Pursuing Diphtheria Vaccination

If the DTP immunization is delayed from the schedule suggested by IDAI, there is no need to repeat it from the beginning, but continue according to the schedule. The following is the recommended time for immunization against diphtheria vaccination according to age:

Age Diphtheria vaccination already given Time from last diphtheria vaccination Next vaccination
4–11 months Unknown or never (0) - Vaccine 1 is given immediately, followed by vaccine 2 after 4 weeks.
1 time 4 weeks or more Give vaccine 2 immediately, followed by vaccine 3 after 4 weeks.
2 times 4 weeks or more Give 3 vaccines immediately, followed by 4 vaccines when they are 18 months old.
1–3 years Unknown or never (0) - Give vaccine 1 immediately, followed by vaccine 2 after 4 weeks.
1 time 4 weeks or more Give vaccine 2 immediately, followed by vaccine 3 after 4 weeks.
2 times 4 weeks or more Give vaccine 3 immediately, followed by vaccine 4 after at least 6 months.
3 times 6 months or more Give 4 vaccines when they are 18 months old or at least 6 months after the last vaccine (if the child's age has passed 18 months). Followed by 5 vaccines at 5 years of age.
4–6 years Unknown or never (0) - Give vaccine 1 immediately, followed by vaccine 2 after 4 weeks.
1 time 4 weeks or more Give vaccine 2 immediately, followed by vaccine 3 after 4 weeks.
2 times 4 weeks or more Give vaccine 3 immediately, followed by vaccine 4 after 6 months.
3 times 6 months or more Give vaccine 4 immediately.
4 times Given before 4 years old Give 5 vaccines after 6 months from the previous vaccine.
Given at the age of 4 years or older Give the vaccine at the age of 11 or 12.

For children aged 7–18 years, the catch vaccination that will be given is the Td or Tdap type. The following is a suggested schedule:

Age Last diphtheria vaccination Age at first diphtheria vaccination Time from last diphtheria vaccination Next dose
7–18 years Unknown or never (0) - - Give vaccine 1 immediately, followed by vaccine 2 after 4 weeks.
1 time Given before 12 months of age - Give vaccine 2 immediately, followed by vaccine 3 after 4 weeks.
Given at the age of 12 months or older 4 weeks or more Give vaccine 2 immediately, followed by vaccine 3 (Td) after 6 months.
2 times Given before 12 months of age 4 weeks or more Give vaccine 3 immediately, followed by vaccine 4 after 6 months.
Given at the age of 12 months or older 6 months or more Give vaccine 3 immediately, followed by vaccine 4 within 10 years.
3 times Given before 12 months of age 6 months or more Give vaccine 4 immediately, followed by the next vaccine in 10 years.
Given at the age of 12 months or older - If vaccine 3 is Tdap, give the next Td vaccine in 10 years. If vaccine 3 is not Tdap, give vaccine 4 (Tdap), followed by the next Td vaccine in 10 years.

Side Effects of Diphtheria Vaccination

The side effects that are commonly experienced after receiving the diphtheria vaccine, whether in children, adolescents, or adults, are usually mild and will subside in a matter of days. These side effects include:

  • Pain, swelling, or redness at the injection site
  • Mild fever and chills
  • Headache
  • Muscle pain
  • Weak
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Diarrhea
  • Appetite decreased
  • fussy (in children)

If there is a high fever, the baby has been crying for more than 3 hours, or has a seizure, consult a doctor immediately.

Popular topic