Table of contents:
- Indication of Blood Type Check
- Blood Type Check Alert
- Before Checking Blood Type
- Blood Type Check Procedure
- After Checking Blood Type
- Side Effects and Complications of Blood Type Check
Blood group check is an examination carried out to find out a person's blood type. There are two types of blood types that are often used, namely the ABO system and the Rhesus (Rh) system
Blood group testing is based on a combination of antigen and specific antibody content in the blood cells.
For the ABO system, antigens are found on the surface of red blood cells and antibodies are found in blood plasma, which is the yellow liquid part of the blood. This system divides blood groups into four, namely:
- Blood type A, has a combination of antigen A and antibody B
- Blood type, has a combination of antigen B and antibody A
- Blood type AB, has antigens A and B, but has neither A nor B antibodies
- Blood type O, has antibodies A and B, but has neither A nor B antigens
Meanwhile, the Rhesus (Rh) system divides blood into two groups, namely:
- Rh+ (positive) for blood that has Rhesus antigen
- Rh- (negative) for blood that does not have Rhesus antigen
Because they don't have antigens, type O blood is often referred to as a universal donor or can donate blood to all blood types. Meanwhile, blood group AB is called universal recipient because it does not have antibodies so it can receive blood from any blood group.
Indication of Blood Type Check
Patients are advised to undergo blood type checks when they want to donate blood or when they want to receive blood transfusions. This aims to avoid fatal complications during blood transfusion, namely the destruction of blood cells or hemolysis.
Hemolysis occurs due to a person's immune system seeing an antigen that does not match itself as a foreign object, so that antibodies in the body will attack and destroy blood cells. The destruction of these blood cells can cause anemia, kidney failure, lung disorders, and anaphylactic shock.
In addition to transfusion purposes, blood type checks are also needed when you want to donate or receive donor organs. For pregnant women, it is important to check blood type to prevent Rhesus incompatibility in the baby to be born.
This can happen when a pregnant woman has Rh- blood type and her husband has Rh+ blood type.There is a possibility that their child has Rh+ blood type, so that when born, the baby may develop severe hemolytic anemia due to the attack of the mother's Rhesus antibody.
Blood Type Check Alert
There are several things you need to know before undergoing a blood type check, namely:
- If you feel weak after undergoing the blood drawing process, contact your family or relatives to take you home.
- The process of taking blood is generally easy and fast. However, in some people, it takes more than one injection to determine the exact location of the vein.
Before Checking Blood Type
There is no special preparation before doing a blood type test. This test can be done directly in the laboratory, clinic, or hospital.
Blood Type Check Procedure
Blood group check is done by taking a blood sample first. The doctor or laboratory worker will tie an elastic rope around the patient's upper arm, so that the blood vessels at the elbow fold are blocked and easy to see.
After that, the doctor will clean the skin around the blood vessel with alcohol to avoid contamination with germs. After cleaning, the syringe will be inserted into the vein to take a blood sample. In this process, the patient will feel pain.
After the blood sample is taken, the syringe will be pulled out slowly and the injection point will be covered with cotton and a plaster to stop the bleeding. Apart from veins, blood samples can also be taken from capillaries at the fingertips.
There are two stages that will be carried out by a doctor or laboratory officer to check the type of blood group, namely:
Mixing blood with antibodies
At this stage, the patient's blood will be mixed with antibodies A or B. For example, if the patient has blood type A, then when given antibody A, the blood will be destroyed.Similarly, if the patient has blood type AB, when given A or B antibodies, the patient's blood will be destroyed.
This examination stage is done by examining the patient's serum or blood plasma (which contains antibodies) and mixed with the blood of other people who have A or B antigens.
If the patient has blood type B (blood plasma has antibodies A), then when mixed with blood group A (has antigen A), destruction will occur.
Even if the patient has blood type O (the plasma has antibodies A and B), when mixed with blood group A or B, destruction will also occur.
Rhesus examination is carried out using the same method as the ABO group system in the first stage. The blood will be mixed with Rh (anti-Rh) antibodies. If the patient has Rh+ blood type, the blood will be destroyed when given anti-Rh.
After Checking Blood Type
The results of blood group tests are generally received in minutes and patients can donate blood or receive blood transfusions from blood that matches their blood type.
Side Effects and Complications of Blood Type Check
Although rare, patients may experience the following side effects after taking a blood sample:
- Infection at the injection point
- Bleeding under the skin (hematoma)
Immediately see a doctor if the side effects do not subside or worsen, so that treatment can be done immediately.