How to Detect Cervical Cancer and Treatment Methods

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How to Detect Cervical Cancer and Treatment Methods
How to Detect Cervical Cancer and Treatment Methods
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How to detect cervical cancer can be done by various examination methods. Detection of cervical cancer needs to be done as early as possible, because the earlier cervical cancer is detected, the greater the chance of being cured

Cervical cancer is cancer that grows in cells in the cervix or cervix. In the early stages or stages, cervical cancer often has no symptoms, so many women are not aware of it.

How to Detect Cervical Cancer and Treatment Methods - Alodokter

Generally, cervical cancer symptoms only appear when the cancer is getting worse or entering an advanced stage.

In women, cervical cancer is one of the deadliest types of cancer, besides breast cancer. Therefore, early detection is important to prevent the spread of cervical cancer cells.

How to Detect Cervical Cancer Early

Every woman is advised to do an initial examination to detect the possibility of cervical cancer cells, even if they do not feel any symptoms. Early detection of cervical cancer will help doctors to provide treatment as soon as possible, so that the results are better.

The following are some types of initial examination or screening to detect cervical cancer:

Pap smear

Pap smear is done by taking a sample of cell tissue from the cervix using a special tool called a speculum. The sample will then be examined in the laboratory.

Women aged 21–29 are recommended to have a Pap smear at least every 3 years, while women aged 30–64 are advised to have a Pap smear every 5 years.

If the Pap smear results show abnormal changes in cervical cells, these changes can be categorized as follows:

  • Mild changes, characterized by insignificant changes in cervical tissue cells and can return to normal on their own
  • Significant changes, if cervical cells undergo significant changes and their growth is not controlled

If the changes are mild, the doctor will usually advise the patient to undergo another examination, such as an HPV test, every 6 months to ensure that the cervical tissue has returned to normal.

Meanwhile, the doctor will advise the patient to undergo a colposcopy if the results of the Pap smear show that the cervical cells have changed significantly.

Colposcopy

Colposcopy examination aims to strengthen the diagnosis of cervical cancer and detect the presence of cells that are at risk of becoming cancer or cervical intra-epithenlial neoplasia (CIN). This examination is done with an instrument called a colposcope to see the condition of the cervix in more detail.

Colposcopy usually only takes about 15–20 minutes, from examining using a colposcope to taking cervical tissue samples. However, this examination can sometimes be uncomfortable.

The following are the procedures and steps for colposcopy examination:

  • Patients are asked to remove the bottom and underwear.
  • The patient lies in a special chair with the knees bent and the legs spread apart and placed on the foot support.
  • The doctor will insert a speculum into the vagina that has been given a lubricating gel so that the inside of the vagina and the cervix can be seen clearly.
  • The doctor will rub acetic acid or iodine in the cervical area to detect abnormal cervical cells.
  • The doctor begins to observe the cervical area using a colposcope and see if there are any abnormal parts, then take photos or videos of that part of the tissue.

If any abnormal looking tissue is found, the doctor will also perform a biopsy and send a tissue sample to the laboratory.

Colposcopy results are generally as follows:

  • No CIN was found in cervical tissue after acetic acid or iodine was given.
  • Acetic acid or iodine indicates the presence of abnormal cells not CIN, but due to infection or other disorders other than cervical cancer.
  • The results of the biopsy did not show any abnormal cells in the sample.
  • The biopsy results show the presence of abnormal cells that could potentially become cervical cancer.

If the biopsy results show the presence of abnormal cell growth that has the potential to be cancerous or CIN, further treatment is required.

Cervical Cancer Treatment

Cervical cancer treatment is determined based on several factors, namely the stage of cancer, the type of cancer, and the patient's overall he alth condition. To treat cervical cancer, doctors can give chemotherapy and radiation therapy as well as surgery.

The following are some types of surgery that can be done to treat cervical cancer:

1. Large loop excision of the transformation zone (LLETZ)

LLETZ aims to remove tissue that contains cells that have the potential to become cervical cancer. Lifting of the tissue is carried out using a spiral-shaped wire that is electrified with low strength.

2. Conization or cone biopsy

This procedure is performed using a scalpel, laser, or thin electrified wire (LEEP) to remove cancer cells. The conization method chosen depends on the location and severity of cervical cancer.

3. Radical trachelectomy

Trachelectomy surgery aims to remove the cervix, part of the vagina, and lymph nodes in the pelvic area through a laparoscopic surgical technique.

In a trachelectomy procedure, the uterus is not removed, so the patient can still have children after this procedure.

4. Hysterectomy

Hysterectomy is a surgical procedure to remove the uterus and cervix (cervix) that have contracted cervical cancer. This procedure can be performed through an incision in the abdomen or by laparoscopy.

5. Laser surgery

Laser surgery aims to destroy cervical cancer cells by firing a laser beam through the vagina.

6. Coagulation

Coagulation is a procedure that uses heat or electricity to destroy abnormal cells, such as cervical cancer cells.

7. Cryotherapy

Cryotherapy is the use of liquid nitrogen to freeze and destroy cancer cells.

To prevent cervical cancer, it is important for every woman to undergo HPV immunization, practice safe sex by using condoms and do not change sexual partners, and perform regular cervical examinations.

If you still have questions about how to detect cervical cancer and its treatment, you can consult a doctor. Always remember that prevention is better than cure. Therefore, early detection efforts are very important.

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