Table of contents:
- Ultrasonographic Indication
- Ultrasonography Alert
- Before ultrasound
- Ultrasonography Procedure
- After Ultrasonography
- Side Effects of Ultrasound
Ultrasonography (USG) is a scanning procedure using high-frequency sound wave technology. The purpose of ultrasound is to produce images of internal organs
Ultrasonography is used for various purposes, from examining the condition of the fetus, detecting disease, to assisting doctors in surgery or taking tissue samples (biopsy).
In contrast to other scanning procedures, such as X-rays (X-rays) and CT scans that use radiation, ultrasound uses sound wave technology to produce images of internal organs. Therefore, this action is considered safe, including for pregnant women.
There are 3 types of ultrasound that are generally used, namely:
This type of ultrasound is performed by moving the scanner (probe) on the surface of the patient's skin.
Internal ultrasoundInternal ultrasound is performed by inserting a probe into the patient's vagina or anus.
Endoscopic ultrasoundEndoscopic ultrasound is performed by inserting a probe that has been attached to the endoscope through the esophagus. The endoscope is a thin, flexible tube, which has a camera and a light at the end.
Based on its intended use, ultrasound is divided into two categories, namely pregnancy ultrasound and diagnostic ultrasound. Here is the explanation:
The purpose of doing a pregnancy ultrasound is to:
- Confirming pregnancy, whether single pregnancy or twins
- Knowing gestational age and estimating delivery time
- Monitoring the development of the fetus and knowing its gender
- Checking the fetal heart rate, blood flow, and oxygen levels
- Checking the condition of the uterus, cervix, ovaries, and placenta
- Detect birth defects in the fetus, such as Down syndrome
- Knowing the position of the fetus (normal, transverse, or breech)
- Checking amniotic fluid levels and assisting in the process of taking amniotic fluid samples (amniocentesis) if needed
- Detects pregnancy outside the uterus (ectopic pregnancy), tumors, and confirms if a miscarriage occurs
Diagnostic ultrasound is used to detect a number of diseases, depending on the part of the body being examined. The following is the use of diagnostic ultrasound on a number of body organs:
Ultrasound of the head
Ultrasound of the head is generally performed to detect brain abnormalities in infants which can be caused by premature birth, brain injury or bleeding, birth abnormalities such as hydrocephalus, infection, tumors, or neurological disorders of the brain.In adults, ultrasound of the head is used to detect the location of the tumor during head surgery or craniotomy procedures.
Ultrasound of the neck
Ultrasound of the neck is performed to examine the condition of the organs in the neck, such as the thyroid gland, salivary glands, and blood vessels in the neck. Ultrasound of the neck also aims to detect lumps, collections of pus (abscesses), infections, cysts, and tumors in the neck.Doctors can also use cervical ultrasound to assist in taking tissue samples (biopsy) in the neck.
Ultrasound mammary or breast ultrasound aims to detect the size and location of the lump in the breast, and find out whether the lump is a cyst filled with fluid or a solid lump. Breast ultrasound is also used as a guiding procedure in the process of taking tissue samples (biopsy) on lumps in the breast.
stomach ultrasound is used to examine the condition of the liver, kidneys, spleen, bile, and pancreas. Some diseases that can be detected through abdominal ultrasound are enlarged spleen, appendicitis, pancreatitis, liver cancer, kidney stones, bladder stones, and hernias. guide when performing tissue sampling (biopsy) on the internal organs of the abdomen or when removing pus from the abdominal cavity.
Pelvic ultrasound is performed to detect abnormalities or diseases in the uterus, cervix, ovaries, fallopian tubes, vagina, and bladder. Pelvic ultrasound can detect conditions, such as fibroids, tumors or uterine cancer, pelvic inflammation, prostate disorders, and infertility.In addition to detecting these disorders, pelvic ultrasound is also used to determine the location of spiral contraception and help doctors collect eggs in IVF procedures.
USG of the testicles or testicles aims to detect pain, swelling, or abnormalities in the testicles, which can be caused by trauma, spermatocele, tumor, varicocele, twisted testicle (testicular torsion), and undescended testicle (cryptorchismus).
Just like pelvic ultrasound, transvaginal ultrasound aims to see the condition of the female reproductive organs. The difference, transvaginal ultrasound is done by inserting a scanner through the vagina. The image produced on a transvaginal ultrasound is also clearer than on a pelvic ultrasound.
Transvaginal ultrasound is used to detect abnormalities in the uterus that can cause pelvic pain, vaginal bleeding, and infertility. Transvaginal ultrasound can also see the growth of cysts and other abnormal tissue in the uterus, such as fibroids.In pregnant women, transvaginal ultrasound can be done to monitor the fetal heart rate, as well as see abnormalities in the cervix that can cause premature birth or miscarriage.
Transrectal ultrasound is used to detect abnormalities or diseases in the anus and rectum, such as tumors or anal cancer. Transrectal ultrasound can also be performed to examine the condition of the reproductive organs in female patients who cannot undergo transvaginal ultrasound.In male patients, transrectal ultrasound can be used to examine the condition of the prostate gland, and detect and determine the size of prostate cancer.
There are several things you need to know before undergoing an ultrasound procedure, namely:
- Ultrasound of the head cannot be performed on children whose crown has closed (over 6 months of age).
- Ultrasound of the head in adult patients can only be performed during a head surgery procedure, when the patient's skull is exposed.
- Excess stomach acid, obesity, and food residue in the stomach and intestines can affect the results of an abdominal ultrasound.
- Using powder or lotion on the breast before undergoing mammary ultrasound may affect the results.
- Be sure to tell your doctor about any medications, supplements or herbs you are taking.
Preparations to be made before ultrasound depend on the type of ultrasound to be performed. Some of these preparations are:
- Fasting 8–12 hours before undergoing abdominal ultrasound, so that the organs in the stomach are clearly visible
- Drink 2-3 glasses of water one hour before the pelvic ultrasound and don't urinate until the procedure is complete
- Empty bladder first for patients who will undergo transvaginal ultrasound
- Wearing special clothes and removing jewelry to facilitate the ultrasound process
In abdominal ultrasound and pelvic ultrasound, the patient may be given an injection of contrast fluid. This fluid serves to provide a clearer picture of the body's organs.
The ultrasound procedure generally lasts 15–45 minutes. The stages depend on the type of ultrasound performed, as described below:
The stages of external ultrasound are as follows:
- The patient will be asked to lie down on the bed.
- The doctor will apply a lubricating gel on the part of the body to be examined to facilitate the movement of the scanner or transducer. The patient will feel a cooling sensation when the gel is applied.
- The transducer will send sound waves to the organ being examined. These sound waves will be reflected back and displayed in the form of an image on the monitor.
- Patients may be asked to change positions, so that doctors can more easily reach the organs to be examined.
- During the ultrasound, pain or discomfort may appear when the body part is pressed. Tell your doctor if the pain gets worse or is very bothersome.
Internal ultrasound is carried out through the following steps:
- The patient will be asked to lie down with the pelvis slightly elevated.
- In a transvaginal ultrasound, the doctor will insert a probe that has been coated with a gel and a sterile barrier through the vagina. While on transrectal ultrasound, the probe is inserted through the anus.
- The function of the probe is the same as the transducer, which is to send sound waves to the organs being examined. The wave will be reflected back and displayed in the form of an image on the monitor.
- Patients may feel uncomfortable during the examination.
In endoscopic ultrasound, initially the patient will be given a sedative or local anesthetic to reduce discomfort or pain during the procedure. Then, the patient will be asked to lie on his side.
The doctor will insert an endoscope through the patient's mouth and push it down the esophagus to the part of the organ to be examined. Just like other types of ultrasound, the image will be captured through sound waves and will be visible on the monitor screen.
After the ultrasound is over, the doctor will clean the gel on the patient's skin, and the patient can get dressed again. Patients who were asked to hold their urine during the examination were also allowed to urinate. Patients are usually allowed to go home and carry on with their normal activities after the ultrasound.
However, for patients who are given sedative drugs, it is recommended not to drive and do activities that require alertness until 24 hours after the examination. Therefore, patients are advised to be accompanied and escorted home by family or relatives.
The results of the ultrasound will be notified to the patient after the examination is complete. Usually, the results of the ultrasound will also be discussed with the doctor who referred the patient.
Side Effects of Ultrasound
USG does not involve radiation exposure, so it is safe to use, especially external ultrasound. For internal ultrasound, the side effects that the patient may experience are discomfort when the probe is inserted, and an allergic reaction to the latex used to wrap the probe.
As for endoscopic ultrasound, the patient may experience pain in the throat or bloating, but these side effects are only temporary. Although rare, endoscopic ultrasound can also cause bleeding.