Anatomy of Human Bones from Head to Toe

Table of contents:

Anatomy of Human Bones from Head to Toe
Anatomy of Human Bones from Head to Toe

Human bone anatomy is composed of hundreds of bones from head to toe. By recognizing bone anatomy, you can understand the function of each bone location and know how to maintain its he alth

The main function of bones is to support and move the body. In addition, bones are also able to protect internal organs from damage, store important nutrients, such as calcium and phosphorus, and form blood cells. Human bone anatomy is divided into two major groups, namely the axial and appendicular bone anatomy.

Human Bone Anatomy from Head to Toe - Alodokter

Axial Bone Anatomy

Axial bone is a group of bones that make up the main axis or midline of the body.

The following are some parts of the bones that are included in the anatomy of the axial bone:


The skull of an adult consists of 22 bones, namely 8 skull bones that protect the brain and 14 facial bones that play a major role in shaping the structure of the face.

The condition of the human skull when it is still a baby is different when it grows up. When born, the skull bones have not fused to make it easier for the baby to pass through the birth canal. However, with age, the gaps between the skull bones will close and become stronger to protect the delicate brain structures.

Ribs and sternum

On the body there are the sternum and ribs. These bones are shaped like a cage that can protect important organs in the upper body, including the heart, lungs, and liver.

The ribs consist of 12 pairs, i.e. the first 7 pairs of ribs are attached to the spine and sternum, the next 3 pairs of ribs are connected to the sternum via cartilage, and the last 2 pairs of ribs are attached to the sternum. chest and ribs above it.


You can have an upright body because it is supported by the spine that supports the neck to the buttocks. Not only that, the spine also functions to protect the spinal cord and nerves.

In the human body, the spine consists of 33 vertebrae which are divided into 5 parts, namely 7 cervical vertebrae, 12 upper vertebrae, 5 lumbar vertebrae, 5 vertebrae that become one, and 4 vertebrae. coccyx which also becomes one.

Anatomy of the Appendicular Bone

The appendicular bone is a group of bones that make up the limbs, namely the arms and legs, as well as the bones that connect the limbs to the bones in the midline of the body, namely the shoulders and pelvis.

Here are some parts of the bones that are included in the anatomy of the appendicular bone:


The bone anatomy of the hand consists of the bones of the arm, wrist, palm, and fingers. The bone in the upper arm, just above the elbow, is called the humerus. Then, under the elbow there are two bones, namely the radius and the ulna.

Each is wide at the ends and thin in the middle, so it can provide strength when it meets other bones.

Meanwhile, the wrist is composed of 8 small bones and 5 bones that make up the palm of the hand. Each finger consists of 3 vertebrae, except the thumb which only consists of 2 bone spaces.

Leg bones

The feet have flexible bony anatomy that allows you to stand straight and move, such as running, walking or jumping. The bones in the legs are very large and strong to support the weight of the body.

The bones in the legs start from the hips to the knees. This bone is called the femur or thigh bone. It is the largest bone in the human body. This femur is attached to the pelvic bone.

In the knee there is a triangular-shaped bone called the shell or patella which is useful for protecting the knee joint. In the calf, there are the tibia and fibula bones. These two bones are flat in the middle and wide at the ends.

At the ankle there is a talus bone. This bone is attached to the tibia and fibula to form the ankle. Beneath it is the heel bone which is connected to 6 other small bones.

In the sole of the foot there are 5 long bones that are connected to the toes. Each finger has three small bones, except for the big toe only 2 bones. In total, one foot and ankle have 26 bones.

pelvic bone

The feet are attached to a circular group of bones called the pelvis. The pelvis is shaped like a bowl that is able to support the spine.

The pelvis is made up of 2 large hip bones in front and the sacrum and tailbone behind. This bone serves as a strong protective ring around parts of the digestive system, urinary system, and human reproductive system.

How to Maintain Bone He alth

Because it has an important function, it is necessary to maintain he althy bones in an effort to reduce the risk of various common bone diseases, such as osteoporosis, arthritis, or spinal disorders. Here are some ways you can do it:

  • Consuming calcium-rich foods, such as spinach, soybeans, okra, sardines, and salmon
  • Meet the needs of vitamin D, such as beef liver, egg yolks, cheese, soy milk, mushrooms, tuna, and salmon
  • Change your lifestyle by quitting smoking and quitting alcoholic beverages
  • Doing regular exercise, such as light running, leisurely walking, or going up and down stairs

Understanding the anatomy of bones and their functions can be the first step for you to maintain bone he alth. Immediately consult an orthopedic doctor if symptoms or complaints related to the bone area occur.

Popular topic