Table of contents:
- Urine Test Indication
- Urine Test Alert
- Before Urine Test
- Urine Sampling Procedure
- Urine Sample Analysis
- After urine test
- Urine Test Side Effects
Urine test or urinalysis is a procedure to check the visual, chemical and microscopic condition of urine. These tests are performed for a variety of purposes, from detecting a disease or condition to monitoring the effectiveness of treatment
Urine test is done by taking a sample of the patient's urine which is then examined in the laboratory to determine the condition of the urine as a diagnostic material for a disease or condition. Urine tests are very common in various he alth facilities or laboratories because they are quite easy and safe.
Although it cannot diagnose a specific disease, a urine test can be early evidence of a person's he alth problem. Urine tests are usually combined with other tests to get an accurate diagnosis.
In addition, urine tests can also be performed routinely to monitor a person's he alth or to check the patient's he alth condition before undergoing a medical procedure.
Urine Test Indication
Doctors may advise patients to undergo a urine test with the following objectives:
- Monitor the patient's he alth condition on a regular basis, especially those with diabetes, kidney disease, and hypertension
- Diagnosing he alth problems in people who experience symptoms or signs of a disease, such as abdominal pain or bloody urination
- Monitoring disease progression in people who have been diagnosed with a disease, for example monitoring the severity of diabetes
- Monitoring the effectiveness of a treatment or therapy
- Pregnancy detection
Urine Test Alert
Before undergoing a urine test, first tell your doctor about any medicines, supplements, or herbal products that you are currently using. This is because some medicines and supplements can affect the condition of the urine, such as the color of the urine, so that the test results will be inaccurate.
The following are some drugs that can affect the condition of urine:
In addition to medication, tell your doctor if you suffer from disorders of the functioning of the urinary system, such as inability to hold urine (urinary incontinence) or inability to urinate (urinary retention).If you suffer from this condition, it may be necessary to collect a urine sample with the help of a catheter.
Before Urine Test
Patients do not need to fast for urine tests. However, if the urine test is done in conjunction with other tests, such as a cholesterol test, the doctor may advise the patient to fast before the procedure.
Female patients who will undergo a urine test must inform the doctor if they are menstruating. It is feared that this may affect the results of microscopic analysis of urine tests.
In addition, although further research still needs to be done, patients who will undergo a urine test should not have sex for 24 hours prior to urine sampling. The reason is, having sex before a urine test can affect the results of the examination.
Urine Sampling Procedure
Urine sampling only takes a few minutes. The following are the steps taken by the patient in taking urine samples:
- Clean the pubic area using a sterile tissue, so that the area is clean of bacteria and not carried into the sample.
- Discard a small amount of urine that came out the first time, then immediately collect the next stream of urine into the reservoir.
- Take 30-60 ml of urine into the container provided by the doctor.
- Remove the remaining urine stream to the toilet if the sample is sufficient.
- Close the container containing the urine sample tightly so it doesn't spill or become contaminated.
- Clean the outside of the urine collection container using sterile tissue and wash your hands after taking the sample.
- Give a urine sample to the doctor for analysis in the laboratory.
For male patients, the pubic area that must be cleaned before sampling is the pubic tip. As for female patients, the pubic area must be cleaned from front to back.Female patients should also clean vaginal discharge or menstrual blood if any.
In patients who cannot perform urine sampling independently, the doctor will usually use a catheter, which is a rubber tube that is inserted through the urinary opening (urethra).
Urine samples taken from patients who use catheters must come directly from the catheter tube, not from the collection bag. The goal is to avoid urine contamination.
Urine Sample Analysis
There are three types of urine sample analysis, namely visual analysis, chemical analysis, and microscopic analysis. Here is the explanation:
Visual analysis is a type of urine sample analysis that tests the appearance of urine based on its color and clarity. Visual analysis is usually done first to estimate the condition of urine and what substances it contains.
The color of urine varies from clear to dark yellow. He althy urine is usually clear or slightly cloudy in color due to mucus, sperm, prostate fluid, or skin cells.
If the color of urine looks abnormal or not as usual, it could be due to the influence of the food or drink consumed, it could also be a sign of an illness.
Chemical analysis is a type of analysis in urine tests that aims to detect what chemicals are in the urine and their levels.
One of the quickest and easiest ways to find out what chemicals are in your urine is through a test strip. In this test, laboratory personnel will dip a special strip into the urine to check the content of the chemical you want to know.
The following are some of the substances that can be checked in a test strip:
- PH of urine
- Protein content
- Sugar content
- Urine concentration
- Ketone content
- Containing bilirubin
- The presence of blood in the urine
The advantages of these test strips are that they are easy to perform, fast and affordable. However, this test strip also has drawbacks, namely not very accurate, the information provided is limited, and the results are greatly influenced by the time the strip is immersed in the urine.
Chemical analysis using this test strip only provides information about the presence or absence of certain chemical substances in the urine and whether the levels are abnormal. In order to accurately determine the levels of these chemicals, additional analysis is necessary.
Microscopic analysis aims to detect the presence of cells, crystals, bacteria, or fungi contained in the urine.Microscopic analysis is usually performed only when necessary, especially when visual and chemical analyzes reveal abnormalities in the urine.
Microscopic analysis is done by precipitating urine so that cells and other organic matter can be collected, making it easier to observe. After being deposited, the upper part of the urine sediment which consists of liquid will be removed, while the lower part which is solid will be observed using a microscope.
Some types of cells that can be observed through microscopic analysis are:
Red blood cells (erythrocytes)
The presence of red blood cells in the urine is an abnormal condition and it is necessary to know the exact cause. This can be a sign of an illness, such as kidney stones, kidney infection, or bladder cancer.
White blood cells (leukocytes)
White blood cells are generally contained in the urine in very small amounts. If there is an increase in the number of white blood cells in the urine, it can be a sign of infection or inflammation in the urinary tract.
Epithelial cells under normal conditions can also be found in the urine with low levels. If there is infection or inflammation in the urinary tract, there will be an increase in the number of epithelial cells in the urine.
He althy urine will always be sterile and will not contain microbes in it. The discovery of microbes in the urine indicates the presence of infection. Microbes that can cause infection are bacteria, fungi, and parasites.
Keep in mind, if the pubic area is not clean during urine sampling, microbes can contaminate the urine sample and affect the analysis results. Therefore, the genitals must be cleaned properly so that the urine test results are accurate.
After urine test
After taking the urine sample, the patient can carry out his usual activities. The doctor will let you know the results of the urine sample analysis in a few hours or the next day.
Abnormal urine test results can indicate certain conditions or disorders. The doctor will compare the results of the urine test with the symptoms experienced by the patient to determine the diagnosis of the disease that the patient is suffering from.
A normal urine test result does not necessarily indicate that the patient is he althy. If the patient complains of symptoms of a certain disease but the results of the urine test show no abnormalities, then another follow-up examination is needed.
Some other tests that can support urine test results are:
- Urine culture
- Urine creatinine analysis
- Analysis of total protein and urine albumin
- Urine calcium analysis
Urine Test Side Effects
Urine sampling is a safe and painless procedure. However, some of the following side effects or complaints may be experienced by patients undergoing catheter-assisted urine sampling:
- Bladder damage