Table of contents:
- Endoscope Type
- Endoscopy Indication
- Endoscopy Alert
- Before Endoscopy
- Endoscopy Procedure
- After Endoscopy
- Endoscopy Complications
Endoscopy is a procedure to see the condition of certain organs. Endoscopy can be used to diagnose disease and to support some medical procedures, such as surgery and taking tissue samples for biopsy
Endoscopy is performed with an endoscope, which is a small, flexible tube-shaped instrument equipped with a camera at the end. The camera will be connected to the monitor to project the captured image.
Endoscopes can be inserted into the body through the mouth, nose,anus, vagina, or skin incisions (incisions) made specifically for certain types of endoscopy, such as laparoscopy or arthroscopy.
Based on the organs observed, endoscopes are divided into several types, namely:
- Anoscopy, to observe the condition of the anus and rectum
- Arthroscopy, to observe the condition of joints
- Bronchoscopy, to observe the condition of the bronchi or respiratory tract leading to the lungs
- Colonoscopy, to observe the condition of the large intestine
- Enteroscopy, to observe the condition of the small intestine
- Colposcopy, to observe the condition of the vagina and cervix (cervix)
- Esophagoscopy, to observe the condition of the esophagus
- Gastroscopy, to observe the condition of the stomach and intestines of the 12 fingers (duodenum)
- Neuroendoscopy, to observe conditions in the brain area
- Hysteroscopy, to observe the condition of the uterus (uterus)
- Laparoscopy, to observe the condition of organs in the abdominal or pelvic cavity
- Laryngoscopy, to observe the condition of the vocal cords and larynx
- Mediastinoscopy, to observe the condition of body organs in the chest cavity
- Cistoscopy, to observe the condition of the urinary tract (urethra) and bladder
- Ureteroscopy, to observe the condition of the ureter, which is the channel of urine from the kidney to the bladder
- Sigmoidoscopy, to observe the condition of the sigmoid colon, which is the end of the large intestine that is connected to the rectum
Usually, the doctor will perform an endoscopy with the aim of:
- Find out the cause of the patient's symptoms, such as vomiting blood or miscarriages that occur repeatedly
- Help doctors to see the condition of organs during surgery, such as removing gallstones or removing fibroids in the uterus
- Assist in taking tissue samples for later examination in the laboratory (biopsy)
The following are some of the symptoms that may require an endoscopy to support the diagnosis:
- Digestive tract complaints, such as bowel movements or vomiting blood, diarrhea or vomiting continuously, abdominal pain, weight loss, dysphagia, and burning sensation in the pit of the stomach
- Coughing up blood or chronic cough
- Urinary tract complaints, such as bloody urination or bedwetting
- Recurrent miscarriage or vaginal bleeding
Meanwhile, some medical procedures that can be performed with the help of an endoscope are:
- Repair damage to joints
- Removing gallstones
- Installing a stent in a narrowed bile duct or pancreas
- Destroying urinary tract stones and placing a stent on the ureter
- Removing an inflamed appendix in patients with appendicitis
- Removing myoma in uterus
- Clogging of bleeding in patients with gastric ulcers
Do the following things before undergoing an endoscopy:
- Tell your doctor if you are taking any supplements, herbal products or medicines. The use of certain supplements or drugs is feared to interfere with the smooth operation of the procedure or increase the risk of complications.
- Tell your doctor if you have any disease, especially if you have a history of heart attack, peritonitis, or ischemia.
Endoscopy preparations may vary depending on the type of endoscopy being performed. However, there are some general things that must be prepared before undergoing an endoscopy, namely:
Ensuring the condition of the intestines is clean
Some types of endoscopes require the patient to empty the intestines of feces (feces), so that the images of the organs produced by the endoscope can be seen clearly.
For this reason, the doctor may ask the patient to fast for at least 6–8 hours before undergoing the endoscopy and take laxatives the day before the procedure.
Making sure someone delivers
Some types of upper body endoscopy, such as bronchoscopy, require the use of general anesthesia. Therefore, the patient must ensure that there is a family or friend who can pick him up and take him home after the endoscopy.
Before the endoscopy is performed, the patient will be given an anesthetic. The anesthetic given can be either a local anesthetic or a general anesthetic, depending on the type of endoscopy being performed.
Local anesthetic can be given in the form of a spray to numb the area to be treated. If needed, the doctor will give a sedative to help the patient relax during this procedure.
Furthermore, the doctor will perform an endoscopic procedure with the following steps:
- The doctor will ask the patient to lie down and position themselves depending on the type of endoscopy being performed.
- The doctor will begin to slowly insert the endoscope through the body cavity or through a specially made incision in the skin.
- The camera attached to the endoscope will send images to the monitor screen, so the doctor can see the condition of the organs being examined.
- If needed, the doctor can insert a special tool through the endoscope to take tissue samples from the organs being examined for further investigation in the laboratory. This procedure is called a biopsy.
- If the patient has an endoscopy that requires an incision, the doctor will stitch the incision after the endoscopy and cover it with a sterile bandage to prevent infection. The doctor will also give directions to the patient on how to keep the wound clean and sterile.
Endoscopy procedure generally only lasts 15–30 minutes, but it can take longer, depending on the type of endoscopy being performed.
After the endoscopy is complete, the doctor will ask the patient to rest for a few hours until the sedative and anesthetic effects wear off. After the effects of the anesthetic wear off, the patient is allowed to go home, but must be accompanied by family or friends.
Some types of endoscopy may cause discomfort afterward. If the endoscope is inserted through the esophagus to examine the upper gastrointestinal tract, the patient will be advised to eat soft foods as long as the esophagus is still sore.
If blood in the urine still appears after 24 hours after undergoing a cystoscopy or ureteroscopy, you should immediately contact a doctor. If a biopsy is performed, the patient also needs to return to the doctor to find out the results.
In general, endoscopy is a safe procedure. However, in rare cases, endoscopy can cause the following complications:
- Torn organs
- Continuous pain in the area of action
- Swelling and redness in the cut area