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There are various choices of contraceptives or Family Planning (KB) methods. One of them is a spiral KB or intrauterine device (IUD). This plastic-based birth control device with a shape like the letter T is used by inserting it into the uterus
The spiral KB installation process only takes about 15−20 minutes and can be done by a doctor or midwife. In this tool there is a rope that will hang from the cervix towards the vagina.
Before inserting spiral contraceptives into the uterus, you can take pain relievers, such as paracetamol or ibuprofen, a few hours before the procedure to reduce pain.
Types of Spiral KB
spiral KB is divided into two types, namely copper-coated spiral KB and hormone-containing spiral KB. Here are the differences between the two types of spiral KB:
copper plated spiral KB
This hormone-free spiral contraceptive is quite effective in preventing pregnancy for up to 10 years after insertion.
This spiral KB works by slowly releasing copper elements and blocking sperm cells from rising and reaching the egg. This will make it harder for the sperm to fertilize the egg and create a pregnancy.
In addition, even if fertilization occurs, this spiral KB can also prevent the future fetus from surviving in the uterus and fallopian tubes.
KB spiral contains hormones
This type of spiral KB is coated by the hormone progestin. The effectiveness of hormonal spiral contraceptives is 3−5 years, depending on the brand of spiral contraceptive products.
In preventing the fertilization of the egg, hormonal spiral contraception works by preventing the thickening of the uterine wall, so that the fertilized egg cannot grow. This birth control can also make the cervix filled with sticky mucus, making it harder for sperm to enter the uterus.
The spiral KB is primarily for women who have already been pregnant. Women who have never been pregnant will usually feel more pain and cramping after the installation of spiral contraceptives. The possibility of loose spiral contraception is also more prone to occur in women who have never been pregnant. Even so, spiral KB can still be an option.
The spiral KB is also suitable for breastfeeding mothers. However, it is recommended that the n be placed about 1.5–2 months after delivery or after the uterus returns to its normal size.
Positive Side of Spiral KB
In addition to being effective in reducing the birth rate, spiral family planning also has many other advantages, including:
copper plated spiral KB
- Can be used as an emergency contraceptive if installed within 5 days after unprotected sex
- Can be removed at any time
- Fertility can return quickly after the spiral contraceptive is removed
- Does not cause side effects that can be caused by hormonal contraception
hormone-coated spiral KB
- Reduce menstrual pain and pain due to endometriosis
- Reducing the risk of cervical cancer and cervical cancer
- Can be removed at any time
- Once removed, your fertility can return to normal quickly
The Negative Side of Spiral KB
Behind the advantages of spiral KB, there are also some disadvantages. One of them is the high cost of installation. Also, if you want to stop using spiral birth control, you will have to go to your doctor or midwife to have it removed. Not only that, spiral KB also has some drawbacks, namely:
Does not provide prevention against sexually transmitted diseases
This KB is also not equipped with protective equipment that can prevent you from getting sexually transmitted diseases. Therefore, to prevent the transmission of sexually transmitted diseases, you still need to use a condom when having sex. The use of condoms can also increase the effectiveness of spiral contraception in preventing pregnancy.
Increases the risk of an ectopic pregnancy
Research shows that the use of spiral contraceptives can slightly increase the risk of an ectopic pregnancy or pregnancy outside the womb. However, the risk of this disorder is not necessarily due to the use of spiral contraception.
There are several other factors that can also put women at higher risk for an ectopic pregnancy, including disorders of the fallopian tubes, pelvic inflammatory disease, and a history of previous ectopic pregnancies.
Increases the risk of developing ovarian cysts
If you choose hormonal spiral contraception, your chances of getting ovarian cysts may increase. This is thought to be due to the side effects of hormones released by spiral contraceptives. However, this risk is relatively light and in general spiral contraceptives are still safe to use.
Hormonal spiral contraceptives also have the potential to cause disturbing side effects, such as acne, headaches, mood swings, stomach cramps, irregular menstruation, and breast tenderness. These side effects usually disappear after a few months of use.
Another disadvantage of spiral birth control is that not everyone can use it. For example, copper spiral contraceptives are not recommended for use by women who have certain conditions, such as:
- Pelvic inflammatory disease
- Cervical cancer or breast cancer
- Abnormalities in the uterus
- Vaginal bleeding for no apparent reason
In addition, copper spiral contraceptives should not be used by women who have a high risk of contracting sexually transmitted diseases or have had problems using them.
Spiral contraception is a contraceptive option that can last a long time and is effective. However, before deciding to use spiral contraception, make sure this contraceptive is indeed suitable for your conditions and needs.
To ensure this and get information about various other contraceptives, you can consult a gynecologist.