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Granuloma is a disorder in body tissue that appears due to inflammation. This disorder can be seen as a collection of inflammatory cells in the tissue under microscopic examination. Granulomas may appear as a reaction to infection, inflammation, irritation or exposure to foreign bodies
Granuloma is formed when the immune system captures substances or objects that are considered foreign by the body, whether chemical, biological, or physical. Granulomas can form in various parts of the body, such as the lungs, liver, eyes, or skin.
Types of Granuloma
The most common cases of granulomas are the result of an infection in the lungs, whether it is caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis or the fungus histoplasmosis. In addition to the lungs, granulomas can also appear in tissues in other parts of the body, namely:
1. Liver granuloma
Granuloma that appears in the liver is usually not caused by a disease of the liver tissue, but a disease that causes inflammation throughout the body, such as tuberculosis and sarcoidosis.
Granuloma of the liver rarely affects liver function and is usually asymptomatic. that attacks other organs in your body. However, if found on examination, liver granulomas can be an indication of a serious disease in the body that must be found.
2. Skin granuloma
Granuloma on the skin can occur due to damage or inflammation of the skin, consumption of certain drugs, or the presence of other diseases, such as autoimmune diseases, diabetes, leprosy, or cancer.The formation of granulomas on the skin can vary, so it needs an examination by a doctor to determine it.
3. Granulomatous lymphadenitis (GLA)
Granuloma in the lymph nodes is divided into infectious and non-infectious GLA. Sarcoidosis is a non-infectious type of GLA but the cause is still unknown. Infectious GLA can be caused by bacterial infections such as tularemia and cat scratch disease.
4. Granulomatous interstitial nephritis (GIN)
GIN is a granuloma that forms in the kidney. Usually this condition is caused by the consumption of certain drugs, but can also be caused by tuberculosis infection and immune system reactions. GIN is a rare case of granuloma.
5. Chronic granuloma disease
This disease is a hereditary disease caused by damage to phagocytes, namely immune cells that work by eating germs.Patients with chronic granuloma disease become susceptible to various types of fungal and bacterial infections, such as pneumonia. This disease can also cause skin infections such as boils, abscesses, and eczema that are difficult to cure.
Granuloma Examination and Treatment
Granuloma is a condition that is often detected accidentally when you are doing a he alth check-up or check-up. The clinical picture of granulomas tends to be non-specific and may appear benign or even cancer-like.
Granuloma generally does not show typical symptoms. However, if there are symptoms, such as shortness of breath, chest pain, fever, and a cough that doesn't go away, the doctor may perform several clinical evaluations, in the form of an analysis of medical history and family history, laboratory tests, and radiological examinations.
If on examination there is a suspicion of granuloma, the doctor still has to confirm with a biopsy examination that the formation is really a granuloma and not a malignant disease.
Treatment of granuloma will be adjusted according to the underlying cause. For example, if a lung granuloma is triggered by a bacterial infection, the treatment given is antibiotics. Meanwhile, if the granuloma is caused by inflammation as in sarcoidosis, the treatment will be anti-inflammatory, such as corticosteroids.
To determine whether the complaints you are experiencing are caused by granulomas or whether the granulomas you have are dangerous or not, you can consult a doctor to get an examination and treatment according to your condition.