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Eyes are made up of many parts. The eye anatomy works with each other in carrying out its function as the sense of sight. Please note that about 75% of the information we receive is in the form of visual information
The process of vision begins with the reflection of light from an object or the environment around us. This light will be captured by the eye and enters the eye through the cornea at the front of the eye, then passes through the middle eye and is finally received by the retina (back of the eye).
The retina has millions of light-sensitive nerve cells. These cells function to convert light reflected from objects in the surrounding environment into electrical signals which are then sent to the brain for processing as images. Thus, we can see various objects and colors around us.
In general, the anatomy of the eye is divided into three parts, namely the front, the middle, and the back. Each part consists of several organs with their respective functions.
Anatomy of the Front Eye
Anatomy of the front of the eye is the outermost area of the eye that we can see directly. The front eye consists of several parts, namely:
The cornea is a transparent protective dome that is at the front of the eyeball. The cornea functions to focus light before it is received by the eye lens. The cornea has no blood vessels and is very sensitive to pain.
This is the part that determines your eye color. The color of the iris is determined by the pigment melanin, a natural dye that also determines skin and hair color. The iris regulates the light that enters your eye by changing the size of the pupil of the eye.
In the center of the iris, you will see a small black hole called the pupil. This part determines how much light enters the eye. The pupil of the eye can widen and contract when it gets too much or too little light.
The white part of the eye on the eyeball is called the sclera. This part serves as a hard wall that protects the tissue inside the eyeball. The sclera is surrounded by 6 eye muscles which are responsible for moving the eyeball.
This structure is a clear layer that lines the inside of the eyelid and part of the front of the eye. There are 2 types of conjunctiva, namely the bulbar conjunctiva which covers the sclera and the palpebral conjunctiva which covers the inside of the eyelids.
Anatomy of the Middle Eye
After tracing the part that is visible from the front, let's look at the center of the eye. This section consists of:
This part is just behind the iris and pupil. A normal lens will appear clear or transparent and oval in shape. The function of the lens is to refract incoming light and focus it on the retina.
The middle part of the eye is also known as the clear body. This cavity extends from the back of the lens to the back wall of the eyeball. Inside the vitreous cavity is a clear, gel-like fluid called vitreous.
Anatomy of the Back of the Eye
The back of the eye is composed of three parts, namely:
This is a light-sensitive layer that lines the inside of the eye. The retina is made up of millions of cells capable of capturing light that passes through the cornea and lens.
These specialized cells consist of rods and cones. Rod cells in the retina function to see dim light, while cone cells are responsible for seeing bright light and color. The way the retina works is almost like a film roll on a camera.
The macula is the part in the center of the retina. When viewed using an ophthalmoscope, this area will appear bright yellow. This section plays a very important role in your vision and allows you to see objects well.
This section carries all the visual information collected by the retina to the brain.
In addition to recognizing the eye, you also know that the eye can function optimally thanks to the supporting organs, namely the eyelids and eyelashes.
When you blink, the eyelids help lubricate the surface of the eye with tears. Meanwhile, eyelashes are responsible for filtering and preventing the entry of foreign objects, including dust and dirt.
Well, those are the parts of the anatomy of the eye and their functions. Because the eyes have a very important role, you need to always maintain good eye he alth.
To ensure that your eyes are he althy and functioning properly, you are advised to have regular eye exams with an ophthalmologist.
If you experience eye complaints, such as red and swollen eyes, pain, tenderness, or impaired vision, consult your doctor. That way, the doctor can examine the function and anatomy of your eye and provide the appropriate treatment.