Table of contents:
- Adult Immunization Through Compulsory Vaccines
- Adult Immunization Through Additional Vaccines
- Special Immunizations for Travelers
Not only applies to infants and children, immunizations are also needed by adults in preventing the transmission of diseases caused by viruses or bacteria that may be in the surrounding environment. One form of immunization is by giving vaccines
Immunization is an effort to encourage the formation of immunity against a disease. In certain circumstances, adults require immunization in the form of vaccine injections every several periods.
By receiving vaccines, you not only protect yourself from disease transmission, but also break the chain of spread and stop disease outbreaks occurring in an area.
Adult Immunization Through Compulsory Vaccines
When given to someone, the vaccine will trigger a specific immune reaction against a particular disease, for example the COVID-19 vaccine to ward off infection with the SARS-CoV-2 virus, so it doesn't develop into a disease.
Vaccines generally contain disease-causing microorganisms, such as viruses or bacteria, that have been weakened or killed. Vaccines can also be part of a microorganism that has been processed in such a way that it can stimulate the immune system to recognize and fight viruses or bacteria that cause disease.
In Indonesia, there are five types of vaccines that everyone must receive, namely hepatitis B, BCG, Polio, MR, and Tdap. Here is the explanation:
1. Hepatitis B vaccine
Based on the data and information center of the Indonesian Ministry of He alth in 2014, Indonesia is the second largest hepatitis B endemic area in Southeast Asia after Myanmar, with an estimated 28 million Indonesians infected with Hepatitis B and C. Indonesian population.
This vaccine is especially recommended for those of you who are at high risk of being infected with hepatitis B, such as:
- Working in a hospital or he alth facility
- Suffer from diabetes, liver and chronic kidney disease
- Having sex or living with someone with hepatitis
- Frequently have multiple sexual partners
- Suffering from sexually transmitted diseases, such as HIV
- Using drugs
- Having sex between men with men
The amount of hepatitis B vaccine you need is 3 doses. The interval between the first and second doses is a month. The third dose is given at least two months after receiving the second dose of vaccine.
2. BCG Vaccine
The BCG vaccine is useful for preventing you from getting tuberculosis (TB). This vaccine is recommended for infants, children, and adults aged 16–35 years, especially those at high risk of exposure to TB in the workplace, including:
- Laboratory staff who come into contact with a patient's blood or urine sample
- Animal he alth officer
- Prison staff in direct contact with inmates
- Community he alth service officer
Adults may get the BCG vaccine with the following conditions:
- Never had the BCG vaccine before
- No history of TB disease
- Not suffering from HIV
- Do not suffer from white blood cell cancer, such as leukemia and lymphoma
- Not currently undergoing immunosuppressive treatment
- Never had a severe allergic reaction or anaphylaxis to any of the substances used in vaccines
- Not pregnant
3. Polio vaccine
Oral polio vaccine (OPV) is given at birth and at 2, 4, 6, and 18 months (or 2, 3, 4 months according to government programs). While the injectable polio vaccine (IPV) is given at the ages of 2, 4, 6–18 months, and 6–8 years.
If the polio immunization is late, do not repeat the administration from the beginning, but continue and complete it according to schedule, regardless of the distance between the delay from the previous administration.
However, for those of you who only received the polio vaccine once or twice as a child, you must complete the polio vaccine series as an adult.
If you have never received a polio vaccination at all, you are recommended to undergo 3 doses of IPV polio vaccine injections, especially for those of you who frequently travel to countries with a greater risk of polio, work in laboratories, work as he alth care workers polio patients, or have close contact with people infected with the polio virus.
The interval between the injection of the first and second doses is 1-2 months. Meanwhile, the third dose can be given 6–12 months after the second dose.
However, if you have had a series of polio vaccines (IPV or OPV) as a child, you will only need to have one injection of a booster or booster polio vaccine to get lifelong immunity.
4. MR Vaccine
The MR vaccine is a substitute for the MMR vaccine which is no longer available in public he alth facilities. The MR vaccine program is a priority for the Indonesian government as a form of control of measles and rubella infectious diseases.
Children who have received the MMR vaccine still need to get the MR vaccine to ensure full immunity to measles and rubella. MR vaccine is given to all children aged 9 months to less than 15 years.
Not only children and adolescents, adults can also be given this vaccine. For women, for example, the MR vaccine given before they get pregnant can prevent miscarriage or birth defects in the baby.
5. Tdap Vaccine
The Tdap vaccine can prevent you from getting diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis or whooping cough. This vaccine contains dead microorganisms.
The Tdap vaccine is recommended for those who have not received diphtheria vaccination after the age of 11, work in a hospital, are 27–36 weeks pregnant, are 65 years of age and older, or will be caring for a baby under a year old.
You are also advised to get a booster vaccine every 10 years to prevent being exposed to the bacteria that cause diphtheria and tetanus.
6. COVID-19 Vaccine
This vaccine is required by the Indonesian government to break the chain of transmission of COVID-19. The following are the groups prioritized by the government to receive the COVID-19 vaccine:
- Old age or have co-morbidities that can increase the severity of COVID-19
- He alth workers who have a high risk of being infected and transmitting COVID-19
- People with jobs that have a high risk of contracting and transmitting COVID-19, such as members of the TNI and Polri, law enforcement officers, and other public service officers
The COVID-19 vaccine is recommended because it can protect the body from the Corona virus by stimulating specific immunity. The dose of COVID-19 vaccine for adults is 2 times with an amount of 0.5 mL per dose. The second vaccine is given 2 weeks to 1 month from the first vaccine.
Adult Immunization Through Additional Vaccines
Besides the five mandatory vaccinations above, adults can also get other recommended or additional vaccinations, namely:
Influenza vaccine should be administered annually as much as one dose from the age of 6 months. This vaccine can reduce the risk of getting the flu and its complications. Usually, the influenza vaccine is given in the form of injections or nasal sprays.
The pneumococcal vaccine or pneumonia vaccine can prevent you from getting diseases caused by the Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteria, including blood poisoning, meningitis, and pneumonia.
There are 2 types of pneumococcal vaccines, namely PCV and PPSV. The PCV vaccine is recommended for children under 2 years of age, while PPSV is recommended for people aged 65 years and over with 1 dose for life.
The HPV vaccine can prevent you from getting the human papillomavirus (HPV) that causes cervical cancer, mouth and throat cancer, cancer in the anal and genital areas, and genital warts. For those of you who have never been exposed to these diseases, the HPV virus can still be prevented by giving this vaccine.
The provision of the HPV vaccine in Indonesia is recommended for women and men from the age of 10 years and over. The vaccine is given 3 times with the second vaccination schedule being one or two months after the first injection, depending on the type of vaccine, and the last 6 months after the first injection.
The varicella vaccine can prevent chickenpox caused by the varicella zoster virus. You will need 2 doses of this vaccine 4–8 weeks apart.
However, make sure you have never had chickenpox before and do not suffer from certain diseases, such as cancer or HIV.
hepatitis A vaccine
The hepatitis A vaccine is recommended especially for men who have had sex with men, drug users, people with chronic liver disease, HIV, workers in primates infected with hepatitis A, and people who live in areas with a high risk of hepatitis A.
You need 2 doses of hepatitis A vaccine at least 6 months apart from the first dose.
The recommended vaccination for elderly people over 50 years old is the herpes zoster vaccine. This type of vaccine is useful for reducing the risk of getting shingles or herpes zoster by up to 50%.
Special Immunizations for Travelers
This immunization or vaccination is specifically given to tourists who will travel to certain areas, either at home or abroad. Its purpose is to prevent infection and spread of certain types of infectious diseases from an area visited.
Some countries even require tourists to bring proof of certain vaccinations, such as:
- Corela vaccine
- Hepatitis A and E vaccine
- Japanese Encephalitis Vaccine
- meningococcal vaccine
- polio booster vaccine
- Rabies vaccine
- typhoid fever vaccine
- Yellow fever vaccine
For tourists who have not completed the vaccination, they must vaccinate according to the recommendations and rules required by the destination country.
Ideally, see your doctor or he alth specialist 4 or 6 weeks before your scheduled departure, as some vaccines require successive administration for several weeks.
For those of you with certain medical conditions, such as pregnancy, suffering from asplenia, type 1 and type 2 diabetes, heart disease, stroke, HIV infection, liver disease, asthma, kidney disease, or have a weak immune system, it is recommended to consult a doctor to find out the type of vaccine needed.
It's never too late to immunize, even though you're an adult. Visit the nearest hospital immediately, especially if you feel you have not received a complete vaccination as a child. Also tell us your medical history and type of work, so that the doctor can give the right vaccine injection.