Table of contents:
The brain has a complex working system that regulates thoughts and controls behavior, emotions, movements, and sensations in a person's body. By understanding the anatomy of the brain, this will make it easier for you to know what parts of the brain and their functions are
The brain is one of the largest and most complex human organs and consists of more than 100 billion nerve cells. All of these nerves are interconnected in a system that connects the brain with the rest of the body, a system that allows movement and reflexes to occur almost instantaneously.
Understanding the Anatomy of the Brain and its Functions
The anatomy of the brain is divided into 3 main parts, namely the cerebrum, the cerebellum, and the brain stem. These three parts of the brain work together to run the body's systems. Here is a complete explanation of the parts of the brain and their functions that you need to know.
Big brain or cerebrum consists of the right and left hemispheres. The right hemisphere of the brain controls the left side of the body. On the other hand, the left side of the brain controls the right side of the body.
Several important functions of the brain, such as processing language and speaking, are located in one hemisphere of the brain which will then become the dominant part. In other words, people who are dominant in their right-handed activities use their left brain more and vice versa.
Each hemisphere of the brain has four main parts, namely:
- Lo bus frontal, which is located at the front and functions to regulate thinking, planning, problem solving, physical movement, and short-term memory
- Parietal lobe,which is located in the middle and is responsible for interpreting sensory information, such as taste, temperature, and tactile sensation
- The occipital lobe, which is located at the back and functions to process images from the eye and associate that information with memory in the brain
- Lobus temporal, which is located on the side and functions to process information from the senses of smell, taste, and hearing. This part of the brain also has an important role in memory storage
The brainstem is the part of the brain that is located below the cerebrum and in front of the cerebellum. The brainstem connects the brain to the spinal cord and controls many important functions related to heart rate, blood pressure, and breathing.
The brainstem consists of three main parts, namely:
- Pons, which is the largest part of the brainstem involved in coordinating eye and facial movements, facial sensation, as well as hearing and balance
- Midbrain or midbrain, which helps control eye movements and process visual and auditory information
- Medulla oblongata, which is the lowest part of the brain that acts as the control center for heart and lung function. Including regulating many important functions, such as breathing, sneezing, and swallowing
The cerebellum or cerebellum is the part of the brain below the occipital lobe and behind the brain stem. Despite its small size, the cerebellum accounts for more than 50% of the total number of neurons or working units of the central nervous system.
The cerebellum or cerebellum plays an important role in controlling limb movement and fine motor skills.For example, finger movements when painting or performing surgery. In addition, the cerebellum also functions in controlling balance and muscle coordination working together.
Brain Supported Spinal Nerve
To function properly, the brain needs a lot of supporting nerves. A collection of nerves that help the brain work together in the spinal cord, which is protected by the spine. This system allows the brain to convey commands to the body.
In the nervous system there are millions of neurons or nerve cells. Each nerve cell has small branches that point outward so that it is possible to connect with other nerve cells.
Nerve cells have two types of branches, namely dendrites and axons. Dendrites receive information, while axons carry information to other nerve cells or to muscle cells. Nerve cells have the ability to communicate efficiently and very quickly because they are connected to each other.
By the time the baby is born, his brain already has nerve cells. However, some are not connected to each other.
When a baby begins to learn, the message will travel from one nerve cell to another continuously until the brain begins to create connections between these nerve cells. This is what makes a person able to do something better after a few tries.
Disorders that can interfere with brain function
Brain function is very important because if there is an abnormality that interferes with brain function, various body performances can be affected. Here are some disorders that can interfere with optimal brain function:
1. Head injury
Injuries to the head can be external or internal. External injuries only injure the scalp, while internal injuries can involve the skull, blood vessels in the head, and the brain. Internal injuries can be more serious than external injuries.
2. Brain infection
Infections in the brain can be caused by bacteria and viruses. Inflammation due to infection of the membranes covering the brain and spinal cord is known as meningitis, and inflammation of the brain tissue is known as encephalitis.
3. Brain tumor
Is the growth of abnormal cells and tissues in the brain. Brain tumors can be benign or malignant. Symptoms vary, depending on the size and location of the brain tumor.
4. Cerebral p alsy
Cerebral palsy or cerebral palsy is a brain development disorder that can occur while still in the womb or after birth. The disorder suffered can affect the motor areas of the brain and can also affect a person's level of intelligence.
This condition can make a person have a seizure because it is caused by damage to the brain. Epilepsy involves certain areas of the brain that can cause uncontrolled body movements.
6. Mental illness
Some mental illnesses are associated with anatomic abnormalities or chemical disorders of the brain. Brain injury and drug use or the influence of alcoholic beverages can cause this condition.
So that the brain can continue to function optimally, there are several things that should be done. One of them is eating he althy foods, especially those containing antioxidants, potassium, and calcium which are important for the nervous system, In addition, it is also important to exercise regularly, maintain good social relationships, get enough rest, limit alcoholic beverages and quit smoking, and wear a helmet when riding a motorcycle, cycling, or engaging in sports that pose a high risk to he alth. head injury.
Equally important is routinely doing activities that stimulate brain performance, such as reading, playing puzzles, playing musical instruments, brain exercises, or creating works of art.
Always keep your brain he althy and avoid things that can harm the brain so that its function continues to work optimally. If you experience complaints that lead to disorders in the brain, immediately consult a doctor.