Knowing Bronchopneumonia and its Risk Factors

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Knowing Bronchopneumonia and its Risk Factors
Knowing Bronchopneumonia and its Risk Factors
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Bronchopneumonia is a type of pneumonia caused by a viral, bacterial, or fungal infection. This condition can also be triggered by several risk factors, such as age, environment, lifestyle, and certain he alth conditions

Bronchopneumonia is a type of pneumonia that causes infection and inflammation of the airways (bronchi) and air sacs (alveoli). This condition makes the airways narrow and the area of ​​exchange of air with blood is reduced. As a result, people with bronchopneumonia have difficulty breathing.

Know Bronchopneumonia and Its Risk Factors - Alodokter

Symptoms

Symptoms of Bronchopneumonia

The symptoms of bronchopneumonia usually resemble flu symptoms which can get worse in a few days. Some other symptoms of bronchopneumonia are:

  • Fever
  • Cough with phlegm
  • Shortness of breath
  • chest pain
  • Fast breath
  • Sweating
  • Shiver
  • Headache
  • Muscle pain
  • Exhaustion
  • Appetite decreased

The symptoms of bronchopneumonia also tend to be similar to the symptoms of bronchitis. However, bronchitis is caused by inflammation of the airways leading to the alveoli, not the alveoli themselves.

Risk Factors for Bronchopneumonia to Watch Out for

Bronchopneumonia is generally caused by a bacterial infection and can be contagious. A person can be infected with this disease if he inhales the droplets of mucus that come out when someone with bronchopneumonia sneezes or coughs.

In addition, there are several factors that can increase the risk of developing bronchopneumonia, including:

1. Age

Children under 2 years old and the elderly (people over 65 years old) are at higher risk of developing bronchopneumonia and its complications. This is because the immune system of children under 2 years of age is usually not fully developed, while the immune system of the elderly tends to decrease.

2. Certain medical conditions

People with weakened immune systems, such as people with HIV/AIDS, cancer, lupus, heart disease, and diabetes, also have a higher risk of developing bronchopneumonia.

3. Air pollution

Exposure to air pollution, ranging from smoke, dust, to chemicals, can cause inflammation of the lungs. This makes the lungs more susceptible to respiratory infections, such as bronchopneumonia.

4. Lifestyle

Alcohol addiction, smoking, and lack of nutrition are also risk factors for bronchopneumonia. This is because the habit of smoking can damage the lungs, while the consumption of alcoholic beverages can interfere with the work of the body's immune system in fighting infection.

5. Nosocomial infections (hospital infections)

A person who is hospitalized, especially if he/she gets treatment in the ICU (intensive care unit) and uses a ventilator to breathe, can experience nosocomial infections. This infection can cause a person to suffer from bronchopneumonia.

In addition to nosocomial infections, the development of bronchopneumonia in hospitals can also be caused by bacteria that have become resistant to antibiotics.

Examination and Treatment of Bronchopneumonia

If you experience brocopneumonia symptoms as mentioned above, you are advised to go to the doctor. The doctor will thoroughly examine your he alth condition and may suggest a number of tests, such as a chest X-ray, blood tests, or a CT scan.

If the results of the examination show you have bronchopneumonia, the doctor will recommend several treatment steps, namely:

Taking medicine

If your bronchopneumonia is caused by a bacterial infection, your doctor will prescribe antibiotics. This medication should be taken to prevent re-infection and ensure that the bacteria causing bronchopneumia in your body are completely gone.

Patients with bronchopneumonia will usually get better after taking antibiotics in 3-5 days. Meanwhile, if the bronchopneumonia is caused by a viral infection, the doctor will prescribe an antiviral medication.

Rest at home

In mild cases of bronchopneumonia or caused by a virus, symptoms may improve on their own within 2 weeks. Therefore, treatment of bronchopneumonia can be done with adequate rest at home. In order for the body to recover quickly, it is recommended that you adopt a he althy lifestyle during the healing process.

Get treatment in hospital

Hospital care is required if your bronchopneumonia is severe or you are over 65 years of age. In addition, you also need to be referred to a hospital if you experience any of the following conditions:

  • chest pain
  • Difficulty breathing so need breathing assistance
  • Reduction of blood pressure
  • Confusion
  • Suffering from chronic lung disease

Hospital care includes administration of antibiotics and intravenous (IV) fluids or infusions. However, if your oxygen level is low, oxygen therapy will be given to prevent worsening of the condition.

To prevent bronchopneumonia, you are advised to maintain good he alth and body hygiene, including regular hand washing with soap. For infants and toddlers, administering the pneumococcal vaccine or PCV as well as the influenza vaccine on schedule can help protect children from this disease.

If you are at risk for bronchopneumonia or are experiencing symptoms, you should consult a doctor for appropriate treatment.

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