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Severe trauma due to an event or disturbance in brain function can cause a person to experience mental disorders. Types of mental disorders include anxiety disorders, psychotic disorders, mood disorders, personality disorders, and eating disorders
Mental disorders are he alth problems that significantly affect how a person thinks, behaves, and interacts with others. If not treated, people with mental disorders will find it difficult to move, work, and even interact with other people.
The Ministry of He alth's 2018 Basic He alth Research (Riskesdas) noted that more than 19 million Indonesians aged 15 years and over suffer from mental and emotional disorders and more than 12 million people are estimated to be depressed. This figure tends to increase when compared to 2013 data.
The cause of mental disorders is not yet known with certainty. However, there are several factors that are known to increase a person's risk of developing mental disorders, including:
- Genetic or congenital factors
- Family history of mental disorders
- Heavy stress
- Have experienced a traumatic event, such as being a victim of harassment or violence
- Use of illegal drugs and excessive consumption of alcoholic beverages
- Certain medical conditions, such as severe brain injury, stroke, and thyroid disorders
Types of Mental Disorders That Are Often Encountered
Mental disorders are one of the he alth problems that still get a lot of negative views from the public.
Not a few people think that mental disorders only occur due to hallucinations or behavioral problems. In fact, there are still many people who think that people with mental disorders need to be locked up or in shackles.
In fact, there are various kinds of mental disorders and each type of mental disorder has different signs and symptoms. The following are types of mental disorders that are quite common:
1. Anxiety disorder
Anxiety disorders consist of generalized anxiety disorder, social anxiety disorder, phobias, and panic. Anxiety disorders are mental disorders that make sufferers feel anxious and restless, and it is difficult to control these feelings.
When experiencing an anxiety disorder, a person may experience symptoms in the form of a lot of sweating, a fast heartbeat or chest palpitations, feeling dizzy, having trouble concentrating, having trouble sleeping, and feeling anxious and worried that it's difficult to carry out daily activities.
2. Personality disorder
A person with a personality disorder tends to have a different mindset, feeling, or behavior from most people in general. Types of personality disorders are divided into several groups, namely:
- The eccentric type, such as paranoid, schizoid, schizotypal and antisocial personality disorder
- The dramatic or emotional type, such as narcissistic, histrionic, and borderline personality disorder
- Anxiety and fear types, such as obsessive compulsive personality disorder, avoidant, and dependent
3. Psychotic disorder
Psychotic disorder is a severe mental disorder that causes abnormal thoughts and perceptions, such as schizophrenia.
People with psychotic disorders will experience hallucinations, believe things that are not really happening, and even hear, see, or feel things that aren't really real.
4. Mood disorder
Mood changes that occur from time to time are normal things, especially if there are triggering factors, such as stress, fatigue, or mental pressure.
However, people who suffer from mood disorders can experience extreme and rapid changes in mood or mood. For example, from a stable mood, suddenly sad, then very happy and excited in a short time.
Types of mental disorders that cause mood swings include depression, bipolar disorder, and cyclothymic disorder.
5. Eating disorders
Eating disorders are serious mental disorders that interfere with a person's eating behavior. This condition can often make the sufferer experience nutritional problems, such as malnutrition or obesity.
Examples of eating disorders are anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, as well as binge-eating disorder or binge eating disorder.
6. Impulse control disorder and addiction
People with impulse control disorders cannot resist the urge to take actions that can harm themselves or others, such as gambling, stealing (kleptomania), and starting fires (pyromania).
While behavioral disorders or addictions are usually caused by alcohol and drug abuse or drug abuse. Not only that, a person can also become addicted to certain activities, such as sex, masturbation, or shopping.
7. Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD)
This mental disorder is characterized by uncontrolled thoughts and obsessions with something, thus encouraging the sufferer to perform an activity repeatedly.
People who suffer from OCD can be obsessed with certain numbers, for example the number 3. This will make them feel the need to do certain activities, such as washing their hands or knocking on the door 3 times. If this is not done, OCD sufferers will feel uncomfortable and worry excessively.
8. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
PTSD can develop after a person has experienced a traumatic or horrific event, such as sexual or physical abuse, the death of a loved one, or a natural disaster.
People who suffer from PTSD usually find it difficult to forget these unpleasant thoughts or events.
Whatever the type, various mental disorders experienced by a person need to be treated by a psychologist or psychiatrist. If not handled properly, mental disorders experienced can get worse and have the potential to make them hurt themselves or others.
If you or someone you know shows symptoms of mental illness, seek help from a psychiatrist immediately. To determine the diagnosis of mental disorders in patients, a psychiatrist will conduct a psychiatric examination. After that, the patient will receive treatment and treatment according to the type of mental disorder he is experiencing.