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The human excretory system is a system whose job is to process and remove metabolic waste and toxins from the body. If not removed from the body, these substances can cause a number of he alth problems
The excretory system in humans consists of a number of organs, namely the lungs, skin, liver, large intestine, and kidneys. Each of these excretory organs has a different function and way of working to remove waste and toxins from the body.
Recognizing the Various Organs in the Human Excretory System
The following are some of the organs that are included in the human excretory system and the types of waste substances they dispose of:
Humans have a pair of kidneys with a shape resembling a red bean and red-brown in color. Each kidney is about 10–12 cm long or about the size of an adult fist.
This organ is located on the right and left sides of the body, precisely in the back of the abdominal cavity. The right kidney is located slightly lower than the left kidney because it is close to the liver.
Kidneys function to filter waste from food, drugs, or toxins in the blood. In addition, the kidneys also play a role in controlling fluid balance and electrolyte levels in the body. If your body has too much s alt or minerals, your kidneys will get rid of it.
The accumulated waste will be converted into urine. Urine will flow from the kidneys to the bladder through tubes called ureters to be expelled when you urinate.
Human skin has about 2–4 million sweat glands. These glands are spread all over the body, but are mostly found on the palms of the hands, feet, face, and armpits.
Sweat glands are divided into 2 types, namely:
- The eccrine glands are directly connected to the surface of the skin and produce odorless and watery sweat
- Apocrine glands that produce sweat that contains fat and concentrated, and are found in hair follicles, such as the armpits and scalp
Basically, the sweat produced by these glands functions to control body temperature and lubricate the skin and hair. However, as part of the excretory system, sweat glands also play a role in removing toxins from the body through the sweat they produce.
There are several types of toxins that are excreted through the sweat glands in the skin, including metals, bisphenol A, polychlorinated biphenyls, urea, phthalates, and bicarbonates. Not only toxins, sweat glands in the skin also function to kill and get rid of bacteria.
3. Large intestine
Basically, the intestine is divided into 2 parts, namely the small intestine and the large intestine. Most of the nutrients and about 90% of the water contained in the food and drinks consumed every day are absorbed into the small intestine.
Meanwhile, the large intestine is responsible for absorbing the remaining water and nutrients that the small intestine cannot digest. After being absorbed, the rest of the food and drink is converted into feces, then excreted through the anus when you defecate.
The liver is a large organ weighing about 1 kilogram. This organ is located in the upper right part of the abdominal cavity, just below the diaphragm.
The liver plays an important role in the process of processing toxins or detoxification. One of the toxic substances that is disposed of and processed by the liver is ammonia, which is a waste product from the breakdown of proteins.
If allowed to accumulate in the body, ammonia can cause various he alth problems, including respiratory problems and kidney problems.
In addition to ammonia, other substances that are excreted or excreted by the liver are:
- Toxic substances in the blood, for example due to consumption of alcohol or drugs
- Red blood cells that have been damaged
- Excess bilirubin which can cause jaundice
The lungs are the main organs in the human respiratory system. In the process of breathing, the lungs are the site of exchange of oxygen obtained from the air into the blood. Blood that already contains oxygen will be distributed to all tissues and organs of the body in order to function properly.
After obtaining oxygen, every cell of the body will produce carbon dioxide as a waste product of metabolism. Carbon dioxide is a toxic substance that can be harmful to he alth if it accumulates in the blood.
To get rid of it, carbon dioxide will be carried by the blood back to the lungs and expelled when you exhale.
Coughing or sneezing is also a natural body mechanism that involves the lungs and respiratory tract to expel toxic chemicals or gases, dust, germs, viruses, and foreign objects that enter the respiratory system.
The excretory system has a very big role in your he alth. The reason is, if the excretory system does not function normally, there will be many harmful substances that can accumulate in the body and cause disease.
To maintain the performance of the excretory system, it is important for you to adopt a he althy lifestyle. In addition, you also need to have regular check-ups with your doctor so that the doctor can evaluate the function of your excretory organs and your overall he alth condition.
If there are problems with the excretory system or other organs of the body, the doctor will provide appropriate treatment.