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Obesity is not just about being overweight. High levels of fat put an excessive burden on the bones and organs in the body and are at risk of causing blockages in blood vessels that can cause disease. In the long term, this condition increases the risk of various chronic complications
Obesity is a condition where there is excess fat tissue in the body, in other words obesity. This is due to the high calorie intake, especially from high-fat and high-sugar food sources that are not processed into energy through activities such as exercise.When food intake is high in excess calories, the body will store the excess calories in the form of fat tissue. However, this obesity condition is complex, meaning that various factors can trigger obesity, ranging from heredity, unhe althy eating patterns, psychological stress, taking drugs or suffering from certain diseases, and a lifestyle that rarely exercises.
The method of determining it is quite simple, namely by calculating the Body Mass Index (BMI) with the formula for weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared (BB/TB2). For Indonesians, the normal weight range is 17, 0-23, 0 for women and 18.0-25, 0 for men.
Mild obesity if the BMI number is 23, 0-27, 0 for women and 25, 0-27, 0 for men.It is said to be obese if the BMI exceeds 27.0 for both women and men. Meanwhile, morbid obesity is when the BMI exceeds 37.5 kg/m2,or BMI 35 and above and is accompanied by he alth problems. If left unchecked, over time this disease will cause various complications.
In the medical world, complications are unexpected conditions that arise after certain situations, such as illness, treatment, or medical procedures. This condition complicates the existing situation. So a complication disease is a disease that can arise as a result of certain diseases and aggravate the previous condition.
Various Diseases That Can Arise
In general, obesity and obesity complications affect a person's overall quality of life, and can even shorten life expectancy. Not a few people who are obese feel social isolation, depression, shame, guilt, to low work achievement.
One of the diseases that is often associated with obesity is type 2 diabetes. The relationship between obesity and diabetes lies in insulin resistance, when the body cannot use insulin effectively. As a result, blood sugar levels increase.
In addition, people who are obese are more at risk of developing various complications, as follows:
- Heart disease.
- Gallbladder disease.
- Chronic lower back pain.
- Periodontitis or gum disease.
- Skin disorders such as infection or inflammation of the skin folds.
- High triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) or good cholesterol levels are
- Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: accumulation of fat in the liver.
- Metabolic syndrome is a combination of hypertension, high sugar levels, high triglycerides, and low HDL cholesterol.
For women who are obese, it is possible to experience irregular menstruation and infertility. While men who are obese have a risk of experiencing sexual he alth problems and erectile dysfunction.
Pregnant women who are obese are also at a higher risk of developing preeclampsia, urinary tract infections, late pregnancy, postpartum infections, complications from cesarean section, and disruptions during delivery.
In addition, the risk of surgery and postoperative in obese people will increase, such as the risk of blood clots, infection of the surgical site, and pulmonary embolism. These conditions are serious complications that have a high risk of causing death, especially in obese people.
Trigger Breathing Disorder
Respiratory disorders in obese people, such as sleep apnea.This condition can make breathing stop several times during sleep. This happens because the tissue in the larynx can't open the airways due to obesity. This condition can trigger several diseases such as hypertension, heart failure, heart disease, arrhythmia, memory or cognitive impairment, depression, anxiety, GERD, and the most fatal complication, namely death.
In addition, other respiratory disorders due to obesity include obesity hyperventilation syndrome or Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome (OHS), which is the body's inability to take deep breaths, causing high carbon dioxide and low oxygen levels in the blood. This situation is caused by excess weight that compresses the chest cavity and disturbances in the brain's control of breathing. Symptoms can include poor sleep quality, shortness of breath during sleep, frequent daytime sleepiness, depression, headaches, and fatigue.
Closely Associated with Cancer
Obesity is associated with various cancers such as endometrial cancer, colon and anal cancer, breast cancer, kidney cancer, pancreatic cancer, esophageal cancer, gallbladder cancer, and thyroid cancer.
This condition is allegedly motivated by the following possibilities:
- People with obesity generally have high insulin levels which can trigger several types of cancer.
- Fat cells produce high levels of estrogen which causes certain types of cancer. These cells also affect tumor growth and the production of adipokine hormones that stimulate cell growth.
- The risk of cancer may increase as obese people experience mild chronic inflammation.
If it causes complications, then the condition needs to be treated immediately along with obesity. Losing weight slowly but steadily is the recommended way.You can do this by changing your diet by increasing your intake of whole grains, vegetables, fruit, fish, and lean meats. Limit consumption of fat, especially saturated fat and alcohol. Regular exercise with moderate intensity such as swimming, leisurely walking, or cycling for 20-30 minutes per day and do it regularly. After exercising, the body will feel hungry, when hungry choose foods with balanced nutrition that are low in fat. And eat in moderation. The combination of a he althy diet and regular exercise is the main choice for weight loss.
The use of drugs to reduce weight is another step if with the previous method the ideal weight is difficult to achieve, or if obese people are also found to have conditions such as diabetes, metabolic syndrome, hypertension, or stroke. The use of drugs for weight loss for cosmetic purposes is not recommended.
The list of complications of obesity above proves that this condition should not be ignored.Obesity and diseases that arise as complications of this condition need to be treated, for example keeping blood pressure or blood sugar levels from getting too high with a he althy diet, regular exercise, and medication if needed.
Consult your condition to the doctor to get weight loss treatment with good diet and exercise counseling, weight loss drugs if needed, to surgery if there are indications. One indication of surgery is an extreme BMI (>40, 0) or if other methods have been tried but are unable to lose weight. The surgical technique to treat obesity that is usually done is bariatric surgery, with the aim of the operation being to reduce the size of the stomach and slow down the digestive process. However, this surgery can cause various complications such as thrombosis, anemia, and impaired nutrient absorption. It is no less important to change your lifestyle to be he althier by renewing a he althy diet, rest, and regular exercise.