The enzyme catalase is useful for preventing the accumulation of peroxides and protecting cellular organelles and tissues from damage by peroxides, which are substances that are continuously produced by various metabolic reactions
The enzyme catalase is an enzyme that catalyzes the reaction in which hydrogen peroxide is broken down into water and oxygen. This hydrogen peroxide compound is one of the breakdown products of every cell that uses oxygen as an energy source in metabolic processes.
This catalase enzyme is present in the body of every organism that uses oxygen. In mammals, such as humans, this enzyme is mainly found in the liver.
The enzyme catalase has been used for various purposes. In the food industry, the enzyme catalase is combined with other enzymes to preserve foodstuffs. This enzyme is also empowered in the manufacture of certain beverages and foods. Not only that, the catalase enzyme is also used to break down hydrogen peroxide in wastewater.
In addition to the various benefits above, the catalase enzyme also plays a role in the field of human he alth. For example in the process of creating gray hair, breaking down alcohol in the body, and slowing down cell damage in certain diseases such as multiple sclerosis.
In biological activity, these enzyme cells are thought to play a role in the mechanism of inflammation, apoptosis (cell death), aging, and cancer.
Multiple Sclerosis is a chronic disease that involves the central nervous system.This disease is caused by the immune system attacking myelin (the protective layer around nerve fibers) causing inflammation and scarring, or lesions. This can make it difficult for the brain to send signals throughout the body and sometimes lead to serious paralysis.
But according to research, the myelin layer can be regenerated by activating the Nrf2 pathway in the body. The Nrf2 pathway is a powerful protein found in every cell throughout the body and is useful in regulating antioxidant defenses.
When activated, the Nrf2 pathway produces antioxidant enzymes such as catalase, glutathione, and superoxide dismutase (SOD). This antioxidant enzyme is powerful enough to neutralize many free radicals, aka fight free radicals. Studies show that the activated Nrf2 pathway is successful in slowing the rate of myelin breakdown.
Accumulation of free radicals in the body, especially in the form of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) and Reactive Nitrogen Species (RNS), which is accompanied by disturbances in the balance in the amount of antioxidant enzymes such as catalase enzymes, can cause damage to cell structures, including lipid components. (fat), protein, and DNA material (DNA and RNA).
The buildup of these reactive components also affects the mitochondria of cells (the energy-forming part in the cytoplasm). In the end, the biochemical components in mitochondria such as proteins, lipids, and DNA will undergo an oxidation process. This process is known as oxidative stress.
This process is thought to be associated with neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Huntington's disease, multiple sclerosis, and Parkinson's.
The enzyme catalase is an enzyme that is useful for breaking down or removing alcohol from the body. The other three enzymes are cytochrome P450 (CYP2E1), alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH). CYP2E1 enzymes and catalase enzymes work to break down alcohol into acetaldehyde. However, there are differences in the way the two enzymes work. Catalase processes only a small part of the amount of alcohol in the body.In addition, with age, the production of some of these enzymes decreases. There are also many medications and other food sources that can reduce the amount of enzymes available to break down alcohol.
Research shows that hair turns gray due to biochemical reactions that occur in hair cells. This process causes hair to turn white from inside to outside. The process of graying begins when the level of the enzyme catalase decreases. The lack of the catalase enzyme causes the hydrogen peroxide compounds in the hair to not be broken down. As a result, hydrogen peroxide builds up in the hair. The supply of other enzymes that can repair damage caused by hydrogen peroxide is also reduced. As a result, the hair eventually turns gray.
Although less well-known than other enzymes, the catalase enzyme has no less important role in our body.