Table of contents:
- Hysterosalpingography Indications
- Hysterosalpingography Alert
- Before Hysterosalpingography
- Hysterosalpingography Procedure
- After Hysterosalpingography
- Hysterosalpingography Complications
Hysterosalpingography (HSG) is an examination using X-rays (X-rays) to see the condition of the uterus and the area around it. This examination is generally performed on women who have infertility problems or repeated miscarriages. Hysterosalpingography is also known as uterosalpingography
In the hysterosalpingography procedure, contrast dye is used in X-ray examination to produce a clearer image. Through these images, problems that occur in the uterus and fallopian tubes can be seen.This examination takes about 15-30 minutes and is performed by a radiologist at a clinic or hospital.
The hysterosalpingography (HSG) procedure is recommended for patients who experience:
- Infertility. This condition can be caused by blockages in the fallopian tubes, scar tissue in the uterus, an abnormally shaped uterus, and uterine tumors or polyps.
- Blockage of the fallopian tubes,for example due to infection or tubal implant placement (a non-surgical method of permanent contraception)
- Other problems with the uterus,such as abnormal shape, injuries, foreign bodies in the uterus, fibroids, and polyps in the uterus. These problems can lead to repeated miscarriages or painful and prolonged periods.
Besides that, doctors can also perform HSG to ensure that the removal of tubal ligation (tubectomy) for women who want to have children again is going smoothly.
The HSG test can be carried out about 2 to 5 days after menstruation or before ovulation occurs in the following month. This is done to ensure that the patient is not pregnant. In addition, patients also need to consult their doctor first if:
- Has a history of or currently suffering from kidney disease or diabetes, because the use of dyes in this examination is at risk of aggravating kidney damage.
- Have you ever had bleeding problems or are taking blood-thinning medications.
- Has an allergy to certain ingredients, especially ingredients that contain iodine.
- Currently suffering from pelvic inflammatory disease or vaginal bleeding.
In order to avoid pain that the patient may feel during the HSG procedure, the doctor will give pain medication one hour before the procedure. In addition, sedation can also be given, especially if the patient feels nervous about this procedure. Antibiotics can be given before or after the HSG to avoid infection.
The doctor will also ask the patient not to wear jewelry or any metallic object because it can interfere with the work of the scanner.
When performing the HSG, the patient is asked to lie down on a special examination chair with knees bent and legs spread apart. After that, an instrument called a speculum or cocor duck is inserted into the vagina to open the vaginal canal so that the inside of the vagina and cervix can be seen. At this stage, the patient will feel a little uncomfortable.Next, the cervix is cleaned with special soap and local anesthesia can also be given to make the patient feel more comfortable.
In the next stage, a small tube (cannula) or flexible catheter is inserted into the cervix to reach the uterus. Contrast dye is then inserted into the tube so that it can flow down the fallopian tube and then into the abdominal cavity, where it will be absorbed by the body. This action is often called hydrotubation.
If the fallopian tubes are blocked, the dye cannot flow. The patient may feel slight pain and cramping during the process, especially as the dye flows down the fallopian tubes.
Furthermore, X-rays were examined. The patient may be asked to change several positions so that the examination can produce images from various angles. After the X-ray examination, a small tube was removed and the patient was allowed to go home with a prescription in the form of painkillers and antibiotics.
After HSG, patients usually still feel cramps such as menstrual pain and experience light bleeding from the vagina for a few days. This is a natural reaction that will subside on its own. The doctor will advise the patient not to use tampons to prevent infection.
The symptoms that indicate the occurrence of infection after examination with HSG and require medical attention are as follows:
- Smelly discharge from the vagina.
- Stomach pain and cramps.
- Heavy bleeding or bleeding that lasts more than 3 or 4 days.
Complications that can arise after HSG are:
- Allergic reaction to dyes.
- Pelvic bone infections, such as endometritis and salpingitis. The risk of developing these two conditions is even greater if the patient has previously had a history of hip infection.
- Pulmonary embolism caused by the use of oil-based dyes that leak into the blood thereby blocking blood flow to the lungs.
- Tissue or cell damage due to X-ray radiation.