Understanding the Phases in the Menstrual Cycle

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Understanding the Phases in the Menstrual Cycle
Understanding the Phases in the Menstrual Cycle

Understanding the Phases in the Menstrual Cycle The menstrual cycle is experienced by women who have gone through puberty. The menstrual process goes through various phases in the female reproductive organs, from the formation of the egg to the release of the egg from the uterus

The menstrual cycle is a natural change that occurs in the female reproductive organs every month. Menstruation occurs when the lining of the uterus or endometrium and the unfertilized egg sheds out of the vagina.

Understanding the Phases in the Menstrual Cycle - Alodokter
Understanding the Phases in the Menstrual Cycle - Alodokter

Menstrual cycle in each woman is different and usually occurs between 21-35 days. However, the average menstrual cycle is about 28 days.

Hormones Affecting Phases in the Menstrual Cycle

Basically, the menstrual cycle is divided into several phases which are influenced by five types of hormones in the body, namely:

1. Estrogen

This hormone produced in the ovaries has a very important role, especially in the ovulation process. Not only that, the hormone estrogen also plays a role in adolescent body changes during puberty and is involved in the rebuilding of the uterine lining after the menstrual period.

2. The hormone progesterone

The hormone progesterone works together with estrogen to play a role in maintaining the reproductive cycle and maintaining pregnancy. This hormone is also produced in the ovaries and plays a role in thickening the uterine wall.

3. Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)

This hormone functions to ripen the egg in the ovary until it is ready to be released. The FSH hormone is produced in the pituitary gland which is located at the bottom of the brain.

4. Luteinizing hormone (LH)

Similar to the FSH hormone, this luteinizing hormone is also produced in the pituitary gland which functions to stimulate the ovaries in the process of releasing eggs.

5. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)

Gonadotropin-releasing hormone is a hormone produced in the brain. This hormone plays an important role in stimulating the body to produce follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone that affect the process of maturation and release of eggs.

Phases in the Menstrual Cycle

In general, there are three phases in the menstrual cycle, namely the menstrual phase, the preovulatory and ovulatory phases, and the premenstrual phase. Here is the explanation:

Phase I: menstruation

Menstrual phase lasts for 3–7 days. In this phase, the lining of the uterus and the egg will shed into menstrual blood. The amount of blood that comes out during this menstrual period can range from 30-40 ml.

During the first three days, more menstrual blood will come out. At this time, women will usually feel pain or cramping in the pelvis, abdomen, and back. This condition is usually triggered by uterine contractions that occur due to an increase in the hormone prostaglandin during menstruation.

Although it causes pain, the contractions that occur during menstruation actually serve to push and expel the lining of the uterine wall which sheds into menstrual blood.

In addition, women who are menstruating can also experience other symptoms, such as mood changes, headaches, and changes in appetite.

Phase II: preovulation and ovulation

In the preovulatory phase, the uterine lining that was shed will begin to thicken again. The process of thickening of the uterus serves to prepare the uterus so that it can be occupied by an egg if fertilization occurs by sperm. This process can occur during the fertile period or ovulation.

At the time of ovulation, the dominant follicle will burst and release an egg, then it moves to the uterus through the fallopian tube. The egg can be fertilized up to 24 hours after it is released.

To ensure the success of the program to make children, it's a good idea to have sex with your partner during this phase or before it, because ovulation is the best time for fertilization to occur. In addition, sperm can survive for approximately 3-5 days in the uterus.

Women's fertile period will usually occur 14 days after the first day of the last menstruation. However, the estimated time of ovulation for each woman is not the same. Sometimes, ovulation can change and this is more common in women with irregular periods.

Phase III: premenstruation

In this phase, the uterine lining thickens. This is because the follicle that ruptures and releases the egg will form the corpus luteum. The corpus luteum itself is a tissue that forms in the ovaries and plays a role in the production of the hormone progesterone which makes the lining of the uterine wall thicker.

If fertilization does not occur, you will begin to experience premenstrual or PMS symptoms, such as emotional instability and changes in physical condition, such as breast tenderness, dizziness, fatigue, or flatulence.

In addition to these symptoms, the corpus luteum will degenerate and stop producing progesterone. If fertilization does not occur, the levels of progesterone and estrogen will decrease, the lining of the uterus will also shed until it becomes menstrual blood.

The phases above normally take place regularly every month. However, if you experience irregular menstrual cycles, have more than 7 days of menstruation, or have not had a period for 3 months in a row, you should consult a doctor so that he can be examined and treated appropriately.

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