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Allergies in children can occur when the body's immune system reacts to a triggering substance or allergen. This condition can cause various symptoms, both mild to severe. As a preventive measure, it is important for parents to recognize the causes and symptoms of allergies in children
Allergies in children are usually genetic. Therefore, the risk of a child having allergies is greater if their parents or other family members also have allergies or certain conditions, such as asthma, eczema, or allergic rhinitis.
There are several types of allergens that can cause allergies in children, including:
- Food, such as nuts, milk, eggs, fish and shellfish
- Irritants, such as cigarette smoke, pollution, and the smell of perfume
- Other components, such as pet dander, dust, pollen, and insect bites
Various Symptoms of Allergies in Children
Based on the severity, allergic symptoms in children can be divided into mild allergy symptoms and severe allergic symptoms or anaphylactic shock. Both of these symptoms can appear minutes or even hours after the child consumes or comes into contact with the allergen.
The difference is, in anaphylactic shock, the child's condition can quickly deteriorate if not treated immediately. So, so that you are more careful in recognizing it, here are the differences in symptoms of mild allergies and severe allergies in children:
Mild allergy symptoms
Mild allergy symptoms may include:
- Swelling of the face, eyes, or lips
- Sneezing, coughing and runny nose
- Itchy skin
- Skin bumps and rashes appear
- Vomiting, stomach ache, and diarrhea
Symptoms of severe allergy or anaphylactic shock
Severe allergies can be characterized by the following symptoms:
- chest pain
- Low blood pressure
- Swelling of the tongue and throat
- Difficulty breathing or wheezing
- Difficulty speaking or hoarse voice
Cough and cold symptoms due to allergies are often thought to be flu symptoms. It's just that allergy symptoms are usually not accompanied by fever.
Meanwhile, severe allergy symptoms are generally accompanied by mild allergy symptoms first, and then one or more severe allergy signs mentioned above.
How to Detect and Overcome Allergies in Children
To determine the cause of allergies, the doctor will perform allergy tests on the child, including blood tests and skin prick tests. Through blood tests, doctors can determine the level of a child's IgE antibody response when exposed to allergens.
Meanwhile, the skin prick test is generally done when the child's condition is stable or there are no allergy symptoms. The goal is to find out the cause of allergies in children.
In addition to the two tests above, you are also recommended to pay attention to your little one's reaction after he eats certain foods, especially seafood, nuts, eggs, and milk and their products. This is done to find out the type of food that causes him to be allergic.
In general, the treatment of allergies in children is done by consuming drugs to reduce the symptoms. There are several types of drugs that are generally prescribed by doctors, namely:
- Antihistamines, to inhibit the formation of histamine compounds in the body that cause allergic reactions
- Corticosteroids, to suppress inflammation when allergic
- Decongestants, to treat colds and nasal congestion due to allergies
However, if your little one experiences severe allergy symptoms as previously mentioned, you need to immediately take him to the nearest hospital so that he can be treated quickly.
As a parent, you certainly want your little one to always live comfortably and grow up well, even though they suffer from allergies. You can prevent your child from reoccurring allergies by making sure they don't approach things that trigger allergies, such as consuming or inhaling allergens.
If your little one has allergy symptoms, but you don't know the exact cause, it is advisable to take him to the doctor for advice regarding allergy testing.That way, allergies in children can be treated properly and you can take preventive steps.