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The polio vaccine is one of the vaccines that must be given to infants and children. The aim of giving this vaccine is to prevent disease as well as transmission of polio, which is a neurological disease that can cause permanent paralysis
The polio virus can be transmitted through direct contact with splashes of saliva or feces of the sufferer and through consumption of food or drink that has been contaminated with the polio virus.
Although infectious, polio virus infection can be prevented with the polio vaccine. Through polio vaccination, a person will have an immune system that is able to fight polio virus infection and prevent transmission to others.
Procedures for Giving Polio Vaccine
There are 2 kinds of polio vaccine, namely oral polio vaccine or oral polio vaccine (OPV) and inactivated polio vaccine (IPV). OPV contains live attenuated poliovirus, whereas IPV uses inactivated virus.
The administration of the OPV type polio vaccine is given by mouth. Meanwhile, the type of IPV is given by injection in the upper arm or thigh. To obtain optimal results, the polio vaccine will usually be given since the baby is born. After that, the vaccine will be given again at the age of 2 months, 3 months, and 4 months.
The polio booster vaccine is given when the child is 18 months old. If the polio vaccine is given to an infant or child too late, it can be continued until the full dose is complete without having to start over again.
Polio Vaccine Side Effects
The polio vaccine generally only causes mild side effects and doesn't last long. Especially for the IPV polio vaccine, the side effects are usually redness and pain at the injection site.
Another common side effect is fever. If after the polio vaccine your child has pain or fever, talk to your doctor about giving pain and fever relievers, such as paracetamol or ibuprofen.
As with drugs or vaccines in general, there are some people who can experience an allergic reaction to the ingredients contained in the polio vaccine. Even so, the chances of an allergic reaction are generally very small.
In cases of vaccination causing allergies, polio vaccine will be discontinued, especially in children who are known to have severe allergies to neomycin, streptomycin, and polymyxin B drugs.
In addition, make sure the child's condition is fit and is not sick or has a fever when going through the vaccination. This is so that during the vaccination process and after, the child can pass it comfortably.
Polio Vaccine for Adults
In addition to babies or children, adults can also get the polio vaccine. The reason is that polio can strike at any age, especially those who have not been vaccinated against polio at all.
If there are adults who have never received the polio vaccine, three doses of polio vaccine can be obtained with a gap between the first and second doses of 1–2 months, while the second and third doses between 6–12 months.
In addition, there are three groups of adults who need to be vaccinated or immunized against polio because they are at high risk of having contact with the polio virus, namely:
- Adults who frequently travel to areas known to have polio cases
- Laboratory workers handling specimens that may contain poliovirus
- He alth workers who take care of patients infected with polio
Adults in this category are advised to consult a doctor about the possibility of obtaining additional polio vaccine.
In addition to preventing disease, polio vaccine is also effective in avoiding complications from polio, namely paralysis of organs, and even death. Therefore, make sure you have your polio vaccination as scheduled or as advised by your doctor.