Various causes of mentally retarded children and their characteristics

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Various causes of mentally retarded children and their characteristics
Various causes of mentally retarded children and their characteristics

Tanagrahita is a term for people with intellectual and cognitive abilities that are below the average compared to people in general. This condition is usually detected in childhood, but can also appear in adulthood

Children with mental retardation can be recognized by their slower thinking and learning processes than other children their age. Not only that, a mentally retarded child is also less proficient in practicing skills when carrying out normal daily activities.

Various causes of mentally retarded children and their characteristics - Alodokter

The word mental retardation itself is another term for intellectual disability. The cause of this condition is generally associated with problems during pregnancy and after the child is born.

Various Things That Can Be Caused by Mental Retardation

Basically, mentally retarded children have limitations in two main ways. First, the limitations of intellectual function or IQ, namely the ability to learn, make decisions, and solve problems.

Second are limitations in adaptability, such as difficulty communicating effectively, taking care of oneself, and interacting.

The main cause of mental retardation is still not known for certain. However, the following conditions are thought to increase the risk of intellectual disability:

  • Brain infections that occur after the baby is born
  • Baby born prematurely
  • Baby doesn't get enough oxygen during labor
  • The mother gets an infection during pregnancy, for example rubella
  • Pregnant mother or fetus is exposed to toxins, such as lead or nuclear radiation
  • Children are severely malnourished
  • Injury to the brain due to accident or fall
  • History of family members with mental retardation
  • Mother consumed alcohol, illegal drugs, or certain drugs while pregnant

In addition to the various risks above, there are several diseases in children that can increase the risk of intellectual disability, namely Down syndrome, epilepsy, or fragile X syndrome.

Recognizing the Signs of Mental Retardation Early on

Signs of mentally retarded children can be recognized since childhood. Usually, children with intellectual disabilities will show stunted growth or development processes. There are several signs that most often appear in mentally retarded children, namely:

  • Children are late to talk, sit up, crawl or roll over
  • Hard to remember
  • Slowly mastering basic skills, such as eating alone, dressing, or using the toilet
  • Behavioral disorders, such as often angry out of control
  • Unable to link the action with the consequences of the action
  • Difficult to think logically or solve light problems

Some children who have mental disorders usually experience he alth problems, such as visual impairment, hearing loss, autism, motor skills disorders, to seizures.

Some cases of mental retardation cannot be prevented, but pregnant women can always avoid activities that can increase the risk of the condition, such as not drinking alcohol and receiving treatment until delivery.

In cases caused by hereditary diseases, tests can be performed to detect genetic disorders, prevent their severity and detect existing diseases early.

According to research, some cases that were detected and treated early showed maximum results. Children can catch up in growth or development and live their daily lives independently.

Children with mental retardation need guidance from their parents and the people around them in undergoing the development process so that they can become more independent and carry out normal activities according to their abilities.

Therefore, parents of children with mental retardation are expected to find out as much as possible about this condition. You can consult a doctor or child psychologist to get information about how to accompany and support your little one who suffers from mental retardation.

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